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GB/T 16578.2-2009 English PDF (GBT16578.2-2009)

GB/T 16578.2-2009 English PDF (GBT16578.2-2009)

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GB/T 16578.2-2009: Plastics -- Film and sheeting -- Determination of tear resistance -- Part 2: Elmendorf method

GB/T 16578.2-2009
Plastics.Film and sheeting.Determination of tear resistance.Part 2. Elmendorf method ICS 83.140.10
G31
National Standards of People's Republic of China
GB/T 16578.2-2009/ISO 6383-2. 1983
Replace GB/T 11999-1989
Determination of tear resistance of plastic films and sheets
(ISO 6383-2.1983, IDT)
Released on.2009-06-15
2010-02-01 implementation
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China China National Standardization Administration issued
Foreword
GB/T 16578 "Determination of tear resistance of plastic film and sheet" is divided into two parts. --- Part 1. Pant tear method;
--- Part 2. Elmendor law.
This part is equivalent to ISO 6383-2.1983 "Determination of tear resistance of plastic films and sheets - Part 2. Elmendo Elmendor Act.
This part is equivalent to translation ISO 6383-2.1983, which is completely consistent in technical content. For ease of use, this section has made the following editorial changes. a) Replace “ISO 6383-2.1983 of this part of ISO 6383” with “this part of GB/T 16578”; b) removed the preface to ISO 6383-2.1983;
c) an introduction to the preamble of national standards;
d) Replace the normatively cited international standards with the corresponding national standards that are equivalent to the standard. This part replaces GB/T 11999-1989 "Electronic film and sheet tear resistance test method Elemendorf method". The main changes in this section compared with GB/T 11999-1989 are as follows. --- Expanded the scope of application of the standard;
--- Added normative references;
--- Simplified the content of the instrument part;
--- Added a clear description of the processing of the sample;
--- Added status adjustment content;
--- Added Appendix A, "Adjustment and Maintenance of Instruments";
--- Added Appendix B, "Calibration of Instruments."
Appendix A and Appendix B of this part are informative annexes.
This section was proposed by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association. This part is under the jurisdiction of the National Plastics Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC15). This standard is drafted by. National Synthetic Resin Quality Supervision and Inspection Center. Participated in the drafting of this standard. Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Resin Institute, National Chemical Building Materials Testing Center (Material Testing Department), National Petrochemical Organic Raw Material Synthetic Resin Quality Inspection Center, Guangzhou Blonde Technology Co., Ltd. The main drafters of this section. Sang Guilan, Wang Jiandong, Chen Hongyuan, Li Jianjun, Wang Chaoxian, Wei Shaohua. The previous versions of the standards replaced by this section are.
---GB/T 11999-1989.
GB/T 16578.2-2009/ISO 6383-2. 1983
Determination of tear resistance of plastic films and sheets
1 range
1.1 This part of GB/T 16578 provides for the cutting of a gauge on a thin, soft plastic sheet or film under specified load conditions. The fixed incision measures the force required to extend the tear of the incision to a prescribed distance. The upper limit of the thickness of the specimen depends on the tearing force of the material associated with the range of the test machine. This section applies to soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyolefin film materials, but varying elongation and oblique tearing will stretch Longer films have poor test repeatability. This method is not suitable for hard materials such as rigid polyvinyl chloride, polyamide and polyester film. 1.2 This section also applies to specimens cut from finished and semi-finished products. When the test data has good repeatability, the method can be used as a quality Specification for acceptance, acceptance, or rejection of quantity control, finished or semi-finished products. 1.3 There is no direct linear relationship between tear strength and sample thickness. The results obtained by this method are expressed by the tearing force (in Newtons). The sample thickness should be reported. Only the data obtained at the same thickness can be compared because the data obtained from samples of different thicknesses Often unmatched.
2 Normative references
The provisions in the following documents become the provisions of this part by reference in this part of GB/T 16578. Quotations with dated , all subsequent amendments (not including errata content) or revisions do not apply to this section, however, encouragement is achieved under this section The parties to the agreement study whether the latest versions of these documents can be used. For undated references, the latest edition applies to this section.
GB/T 2918-1998 Standard environment for conditioning and testing of plastic specimens (idt ISO 291.1997) GB/T 6672-2001 Determination of thickness of plastic films and sheets - Mechanical measurement method (idt ISO 4593.1993) GB/T 20220-2006 Plastic film and sheet sample average thickness, volume average thickness and unit mass area measurement scale Method (weight thickness) (ISO 4591.1992, IDT)
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions apply to this section.
3.1
The force required to tear the specimen in the specified manner, in Newtons (N). 4 Principle
The specimen with the specified slit is subjected to the force required for the specified pendulum tear, and the energy consumed to tear the specimen is used to calculate the resistance of the specimen. Tearing.
5 instruments
5.1 The structure of the Elemendorf type test machine is shown in Figure 1. GB/T 16578.2-2009/ISO 6383-2. 1983
5.2 The fixing fixture shall be accurately aligned with the movable fixture mounted on the pendulum. The pendulum is preferably a sector, and is wound around a ball bearing or other basic The frictionless bearing is free to swing. The clamping surface of each clamp should be no less than 25mm in the horizontal direction [size 犫 (see Figure 1)], vertical direction It should be no less than 15mm (size 犮). The thickness (size 犪) of each clamp fastening portion should be between 9 mm and 13 mm. When the pendulum is at When the starting position is ready for testing, the two clamps should be separated by a distance of 2.8 mm ± 0.3 mm, aligned and the specimens sandwiched between them and the pendulum On the plane perpendicular to the plane of the oscillating plane, the edge of the fixture is on the horizontal line, the length of this line to the oscillating suspension axis (ie between the shaft and the tip of the clamp) The distance is 104 mm ± 2 mm and forms an angle of 27.5 ° ± 30 ' with the plane of the sample. 5.3 A device that allows the pendulum to be in the starting position and free to release. 5.4 Apparatus for consuming energy when measuring a pendulum tear specimen. This device is usually a circular arc scale mounted on a pendulum indicated by a fixed pointer plate. The test machine should be accurately calibrated (considering friction loss and windage loss) so that the force required to tear the standard sample is obtained from the dial reading, single Newton, accuracy to less than 1%. Calibration should be performed on a regular basis. Instructions for adjustment and calibration of the instrument are given in Appendix A and Appendix B. 5.5 Supplementary Weight. The energy used to attach to the pendulum to increase the tearing force of the test machine. 5.6 Thickness Gauge. It is used to measure the thickness of the tested material according to the methods specified in GB/T 20220-2006 and GB/T 6672-2001. 6 sample
6.1 The specimen shall have the shape and dimensions shown in Figures 2 and 3. Preferably, the sample or the arbitrarily sample should be a constant radius sample (see Figure 2), because It has good repeatability (see 8.5).
6.2 Specimens can be cut from the sample using a template and a sharp tool. A 20 mm ± 0.5 mm incision should be carefully cut out, which should be smooth No nicks.
Note. Some test machines have a fixed matching tool, and the sample is cut when the sample is installed in the test machine fixture. In this case, always check if the tool is Sharp and incision size is correct.
GB/T 16578.2-2009/ISO 6383-2. 1983
The unit is mm
Figure 2 Constant radius sample Figure 3 Rectangular sample
6.3 Unless otherwise specified in the test materials, 5 or 5 sets of test specimens shall be tested in each main direction of the film sample (see Note), 5 tests The cut should be evenly distributed across the width of the sample.
Note. When the tear strength of the film is low, it is allowed to test two or more samples at the same time to meet the requirements of 8.3. Cutting of each sample of each group The locations should be adjacent to each other and the spacing of the sets of samples over the entire width of the sample should be approximately uniform. Some samples in multilayer samples may be on the opposite side Tearing to the slope will result in a higher result. When this test behavior is encountered, even if the dial reading may be less than 20, a single sample must be tested. Correct For thin films, it is recommended to use a single layer of sample and a lower energy tester instead of a multilayer tester and a higher energy tester. 6.4 When testing the film along the machine direction (longitudinal), the width of the sample shall be cut in the longitudinal direction. Similarly, the specimen for determining the transverse tear strength should Cut its width in the transverse direction.
7 state adjustment
Unless otherwise specified in the test materials, the test specimen shall be conditionally adjusted in the 23 ° C/50% environmental conditions specified in GB/T 2918-1998. And experimentation. When the material is known to be insensitive to humidity, ambient conditions of 23 ° C can be used. 8 Operation steps
8.1 Measure the thickness of the test material according to the method specified in GB/T 6672-2001. Note. GB/T 6672-2001 does not apply to films and sheets with embossing. 8.2 Check that the instrument is level, lift and lock the pendulum, adjust the indicator to the starting position, and gently release the pendulum. Check if the pointer refers to Zero, if necessary, adjust according to the instruction manual.
8.3 Perform several tests in accordance with the procedure specified in 8.4 to check whether additional hammers are required or if multiple layers of specimens are required (see Note 6.3) to The energy absorbed by the pendulum during the tearing process is between 20% and 80% of the total energy of the pendulum. Install hammer or add-on each time After the heavy hammer, adjust the zero point according to the instruction manual. 8.4 Lift and lock the pendulum and adjust the indicator to the starting point. Carefully assemble the specimen or specimen into the fixture so that the slit is in the testing machine Center the clamp between the fixed clamp and the movable clamp and tighten the clamp (see note). Carefully release the pendulum and record the tear specimen or sample set on the dial The power consumed.
Note. When the test machine is equipped with a matching cutting tool, use this tool cutting after clamping the sample according to 8.4 (see Note to 6.2). 8.5 When using a constant radius test (see Figure 2), the sample with the tear line offset from the constant radius area should be discarded and the sample weight added. New test.
GB/T 16578.2-2009/ISO 6383-2. 1983
When using a rectangular specimen test (see Figure 3), the specimen with the tear line 10 mm or more from the slit line should be discarded and the specimen refilled. test. Except when the tear is along the grain of the embossed pattern. When the tear line always deviates from 10mm, try to use a constant radius. Sample test.
9 Calculation and representation of results
9.1 According to the tester's instruction manual, the force required to tear each sample is determined by the dial reading, in Newtons. Will this force The value is the tear resistance of each sample or group of samples (the number of layers of the sample should be indicated when using multiple layers of samples) in Newtons. 9.2 Calculate the arithmetic mean of the tearing force in each of the main directions of the film or sheet. 9.3 Calculate the standard deviation of each set of results as needed.
10 test report
The test report should include the following.
a) indicate the use of this section;
b) complete identification instructions for the test material, including type, source, manufacturer code, shape, major dimensions and previous experience; c) the thickness of the material and the method of measurement;
d) Standard environment for GB/T 2918-1998 used for conditioning and testing; e) sample type;
f) the number of samples, the number of samples per set of samples in a multi-layer sample (if used); g) the average tear resistance of each main direction;
h) single test results and standard deviations (if required);
i) Operational details not specified in this section that may have affected the test results. GB/T 16578.2-2009/ISO 6383-2. 1983
Appendix A
(informative appendix)
Instrument adjustment and maintenance
For each pendulum/additional mass combination used, the methods described below should be followed. A. 1 test
Check the following items and make the necessary adjustments.
a) Check if the pendulum shaft is bent.
b) Check if the distance between the two clamps is 2.8mm±0.3mm, and whether the two clamps are aligned when the pendulum is in the starting position. c) Check that the tool is installed securely and that the cutting edge is sharp and non-destructive. The blade should be centered and perpendicular to the top of the two clamps. d) Ensure that the pointer is intact and securely attached to the bushing. A. 2 horizontal adjustment
Place the instrument on a hard test bench and fix it on the test bench if possible. Tighten the clamps on the pendulum and adjust the level of the instrument. When adjusting, the pendulum is suspended vertically and the indicator marks on the pendulum and the base are coincident. Pressure Brake down so that the pendulum swings slightly freely and checks if the two marks still coincide when it returns to rest. A. 3 zero adjustment
After leveling, there is no sample in the fixture and tighten it. Operate the instrument several times to determine if the pointer is aligned to zero. If you don't aim at zero, Move the adjustable pointer stop.
A. 4 Adjustment of pendulum friction
A reference mark is placed on the brake mechanism 25 mm to the right of the cutting edge of the pendulum. Raise the fan to the starting position and adjust The entire pointer does not touch the pointer stopper when the instrument is operated. When the fan-shaped pendulum is released, the brake of the pendulum is simultaneously depressed, and the edge of the fan-shaped pendulum no longer passes the left side of the reference mark and the brake mechanism The fan-shaped pendulum should vibrate at least 35 times before the meshing. Otherwise, the bearings should be cleaned, refueled or adjusted. A. 5 tear length adjustment
Adjust the position of the cutter and check the tear length, which should be 43.0mm ± 0.5mm. Otherwise, adjust the size of the cutter or sample cutter used. GB/T 16578.2-2009/ISO 6383-2. 1983
Appendix B
(informative appendix)
Calibration of the instrument
Calibration of the instrument can be calibrated by measuring the work done while increasing the pendulum of various masses. Then the indicated ruler readings are made Work is compared. Many tear testers provide a threaded hole to help increase quality. The position of the center of gravity of the additional mass should be known. Adjust the instrument and check that it meets the requirements of Appendix A. Use a variety of additional masses to operate the instrument without a sample and measure the scale The reading and corresponding scale readings add the height of the mass center of gravity to the level. The corrected scale number γ is calculated by the following formula.
In the formula.
γ---corrected scale reading (scale unit);
H---the pendulum is in the starting position, the height of the weight of the additional weight from the level surface, in meters (m); P---pendulum factor, theoretically the number of layers that simultaneously tear the sheet, for which the scale of the calibrated pendulum can be directly given Tear resistance reading in millinewtons (mN), which is usually 8, 16, or 32. The calculated and indicated scale readings should be within ±1%. If not, think it is invalid, if possible, find out the cause of the failure and Correct it. In addition, redraw a correct picture and adjust the results appropriately. GB/T 16578.2-2009/ISO 6383-2. 1983

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