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GB/T 16422.1-2019 English PDF (GBT16422.1-2019)

GB/T 16422.1-2019 English PDF (GBT16422.1-2019)

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GB/T 16422.1-2019: Plastics -- Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources -- Part 1: General guidance

GB/T 16422.1-2019
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 83.080.01
G 31
GB/T 16422.1-2019 / ISO 4892-1:2016
Replacing GB/T 16422.1-2006
Plastics – Methods of Exposure to
Laboratory Light Sources – Part 1: General Guidance
(ISO 4892-1:2016, IDT)
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 10, 2019
IMPLEMENTED ON: NOVEMBER 01, 2020
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 6
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative References ... 7
3 Terms and Definitions ... 8
4 Principle ... 9
4.1 General ... 9
4.2 Significance ... 9
4.3 Use of accelerated tests with laboratory light sources ... 11
5 Requirements for Laboratory Exposure Devices ... 12
5.1 Irradiance ... 12
5.2 Temperature ... 14
5.3 Humidity and wetting ... 17
5.4 Other requirements for the exposure device ... 18
6 Test Specimens ... 18
6.1 Form, shape and preparation ... 18
6.2 Number of test specimens ... 20
6.3 Storage and conditioning... 20
7 Test Conditions and Procedure ... 21
7.1 Set points for exposure conditions ... 21
7.2 Property measurements on test specimens ... 21
8 Periods of Exposure and Evaluation of Test Results ... 22
8.1 General ... 22
8.2 Use of control materials ... 22
8.3 Use of results in specifications ... 23
9 Test Report ... 23
Annex A (Informative) Factors that Decrease the Degree of Correlation between Artificial Accelerated Weathering or Artificial Accelerated Irradiation Exposures and Actual-Use Exposures ... 26
Annex B (Informative) Solar Spectral Irradiance Standards ... 29
Annex C (Normative) Procedures for Measuring the Irradiance Uniformity in the Specimen Exposure Area ... 32
Bibliography ... 35
Foreword
GB/T 16422 Plastics – Methods of Exposure to Laboratory Light Source can be divided into the following four parts:
--- Part 1: General Guidance;
--- Part 2: Xenon-Arc Lamps;
--- Part 3: Fluorescent UV Lamps;
--- Part 4: Open Flame Carbon Arc Lamp.
This Part is Part 1 of GB/T 16422.
This Part was drafted as per the rules specified in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Part replaced GB/T 16422.1-2006 Plastics – Methods of the Exposure to Laboratory Light Source – Part 1: General Guidance. Compared with GB/T 16422.1-2006, the major technical changes of this Part are as follows:
--- Modify the content of the Clause "Scope" (see Clause 1 of this Edition; Clause 1 of 2006 Edition);
--- Modify the content of the Clause "Normative References"; and revise the references to undated references (see Clause 2 of this Edition; Clause 2 of 2006 Edition); --- Add relevant terms (see 3.3 and 3.4 in Clause 3 of this Edition);
--- Modify the content of the Clause "Principles" (see Clause 4 of this Edition; Clause 4 of 2006 Edition);
--- Modify the content of the Clause "Requirements for Laboratory Exposure Equipment" (see Clause 5 of this Edition; Clause 5 of 2006 Edition);
--- Modify the content of the Clause "Specimen" (see Clause 6 of this Edition; Clause 6 of 2006 Edition);
--- Modify the content of the Clause "Test Conditions and Procedures" (see Clause 7 of this Edition; Clause 7 of 2006 Edition);
---Modify the content of the Clause "Precision and Bias" (see Clause 8 of this Edition; Clause 8 of 2006 Edition);
--- Adjust Annex B of the 2006 edition into Annex C, and modify relevant content (see Annex C of this Edition; Annex B of 2006 Edition).
This part used the translation method to equivalently adopt ISO 4892-1:2016 Plastics – Methods of Exposure to Laboratory Light Sources – Part 1: General Guidance. The Chinese documents that have consistent correspondence with the international documents cited in this Part are as follows:
--- GB/T 2918-2018 Plastics - Standard Atmospheres for Conditioning and Testing (ISO 291:2008, MOD);
--- GB/T 9352-2008 Plastic - Compression Molding of Test Specimens of Thermoplastic Materials (ISO 293:2004, IDT);
--- GB/T 17037.1-2019 Plastics - Injection Molding of Test Specimens of Thermoplastic Materials - Part 1: General Principles, and Molding of Multipurpose and Bar Test Specimens (ISO 294-1:2017, MOD);
--- GB/T 17037.3-2003 Plastics - Injection Molding of Test Specimens of Thermoplastic Materials - Part 3: Small Plates (ISO 294-3:2002, IDT);
--- GB/T 5471-2008 Plastics - Compression Molding of Test Specimens of Thermosetting Materials (ISO 295:2004, IDT);
--- GB/T 11997-2008 Plastic - Multipurpose Test Specimens (ISO 3617:2002, IDT); --- GB/T 15596-2009 Plastics - Determination of Changes in Color and Variations in Properties after Exposure to Daylight under Glass, Natural Weathering or Laboratory Light Sources (ISO 4582:2007, IDT);
--- GB/T 16422.2-2014 Plastics – Methods of Exposure to Laboratory Light Sources - Part 2: Xenon-Arc Sources (ISO 4892-2:2006, IDT);
--- GB/T 16422.3-2014 Plastics - Methods of Exposure to Laboratory Light Sources - Part 3: Fluorescent UV Lamps (ISO 4892-3:2006, IDT);
--- GB/T 16422.4-2014 Plastics - Methods of Exposure to Laboratory Light Sources - Part 4: Open-Flame Carbon-Arc Lamps (ISO 4892-4:2004, IDT).
This Part was proposed by China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation. This Part shall be under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee on Plastics of Standardization Administration of China (SAC/TC 15).
Drafting organizations of this Part: Guangzhou Synthetic Materials Research Institute Co., Ltd.; Tianjin Kingfa Advanced Materials Co., Ltd.; Beijing Tiangang Auxiliary Co., Ltd.; Shandong Eco-Benign Plastics Technology Co., Ltd.; Atlas Material Testing Technology Co., Ltd.; and Xinjiang Turpan Natural Environment Test and Research Center.
Plastics – Methods of Exposure to
Laboratory Light Sources – Part 1: General Guidance
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 16422 provides information and general guidance relevant to the selection and operation of the methods of exposure described in detail in subsequent parts. It also describes general performance requirements for devices used for exposing plastics to laboratory light sources. Information regarding performance requirements is for producers of artificial accelerated weathering or artificial accelerated irradiation devices.
NOTE: In this Part, the term “light source” refers to radiation sources that emit UV radiation, visible radiation, infrared radiation or any combination of these types of radiation. This Part also provides information on the interpretation of data from artificial accelerated weathering or artificial accelerated irradiation exposures. More specific information about methods for determining the change in the properties of plastics after exposure and reporting these results is given in ISO 4582.
2 Normative References
The following documents are essential to the application of this Document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this Document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) is applicable to this Document.
ISO 291 Plastics – Standard Atmospheres for Conditioning and Testing
ISO 293 Plastics – Compression Molding of Test Specimens of Thermoplastic Materials ISO 294-1 Plastics – Injection Molding of Test Specimens of Thermoplastic Materials – Part 1: General Principles, and Molding of multipurpose and Bar Test Specimens ISO 294-2 Plastics – Injection Molding of Test Specimens of Thermoplastic Materials – Part 2: Small Tensile Bars
ISO 294-3 Plastics – Injection Molding of Test Specimens of Thermoplastic Materials – Part 3: Small Plates
parties shall be reported. Some types of device provide for measuring irradiance in a specific wavelength range (e.g., 300 nm ~ 400 nm or 300 nm ~ 800 nm) or in a narrow passband that is centered around a single wavelength (e.g., 340 nm).
5.2 Temperature
5.2.1 The surface temperature of exposed materials depends primarily on the amount of radiation absorbed, the emissivity of the specimen, the amount of thermal conduction within the specimen and the amount of heat transmission between the specimen and the air or between the specimen and the specimen holder. Since it is not practical to monitor the surface temperature of individual test specimens, a specified black-panel sensor is used to measure and control the temperature within the exposure chamber. The black panel of the black surface temperature sensor shall be mounted within the specimen exposure area so that it is in the same plane and orientation and receives the same radiation and experiences the same cooling conditions as a flat test panel surface. For three-dimensional specimens, the black panel shall be in a plane and orientation that best represents the majority of the specimen surface of interest or at the plane of the primary surface of interest.
5.2.2 Two types of black surface temperature sensors may be used: black-standard thermometer (BST) and black-panel thermometer (BPT).
5.2.2.1 Black-standard thermometers, consisting of a plane (flat) stainless-steel plate with a thickness of 0.5 mm ~ 1.2 mm. A typical length and width is about 70 mm by 40 mm. The surface of this plate facing the radiation source shall be coated with a black layer which has good resistance to ageing. The coated black plate shall reflect no more than 10 % of all incident flux up to 2 500 nm. A thermally sensitive element such as a platinum resistance sensor shall be attached to the center of the plate, in good thermal contact with the plate, on the side opposite the radiation source. This side of the metal plate shall be attached to a 5 mm thick baseplate made of unfilled poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). A small space sufficient to hold the platinum resistance sensor shall be machined in the PVDF baseplate. The distance between the sensor and this recess in the PVDF plate shall be about 1 mm. The length and width of the PVDF plate shall be sufficient so that no metal-to-metal thermal contact exists between the black-coated metal plate and the mounting holder into which it is fitted. The metal mounts of the holder of the insulated black panel shall be at least 4 mm from the edges of the metal plate. Black-standard thermometers which differ in construction from that specified above are permitted as long as the temperature indicated by the alternative construction is within ±1.0 °C of that of the specified construction at all steady-state temperature and irradiance settings the exposure device is capable of attaining. In addition, the time needed for an alternative black- standard thermometer to reach the steady-state shall be within ±10 % of the time needed for the specified black-standard thermometer to reach the steady-state.
NOTE: Black-standard thermometers are sometimes referred to as insulated black-panel thermometers. 5.2.2.2 Black-panel thermometers, consisting of a plane (flat) metal plate that is resistant to corrosion. Typical dimensions are about 150 mm long, 70 mm wide and 1 mm thick. The

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