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GB/T 15227-2019 English PDF (GBT15227-2019)

GB/T 15227-2019 English PDF (GBT15227-2019)

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GB/T 15227-2019: Test method of air permeability, water tightness, wind load resistance performance for curtain walls

This standard specifies the terms and definitions, general requirements, testing principles, testing devices, specimens and installation, air permeability performance testing, water tightness performance testing, wind pressure resistance performance testing of building curtain walls, as well as the test reports. This standard is applicable to laboratory testing of air permeability, water tightness, wind pressure resistance of building curtain walls. The testing objects are limited to the curtain wall specimen itself, as well as its connection structure with other structures.
GB/T 15227-2019
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 91.060.10
P 32
Replacing GB/T 15227-2007
Test method of air permeability, watertightness, wind load
resistance performance for curtain walls
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 10, 2019
IMPLEMENTED ON: NOVEMBER 01, 2020
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation.
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative references ... 5
3 Terms and definitions ... 5
4 General requirements ... 8
5 Testing principle ... 10
6 Testing device ... 10
7 Specimens and installation ... 12
8 Air permeability performance testing ... 13
9 Watertightness performance testing ... 18
10 Testing of wind pressure resistance performance ... 21
11 Testing report ... 28
Appendix A (Informative) Calibration method of air flow measurement system ... 30 Appendix B (Informative) Calibration method of sprinkler system ... 33
Appendix C (Informative) Example of displacement meter arrangement for typical curtain wall ... 35
Appendix D (Informative) Testing report of air permeability, watertightness, wind pressure resistance performance of building curtain wall ... 39
Test method of air permeability, watertightness, wind load
resistance performance for curtain walls
1 Scope
This standard specifies the terms and definitions, general requirements, testing principles, testing devices, specimens and installation, air permeability performance testing, water tightness performance testing, wind pressure resistance performance testing of building curtain walls, as well as the test reports.
This standard is applicable to laboratory testing of air permeability, water tightness, wind pressure resistance of building curtain walls. The testing objects are limited to the curtain wall specimen itself, as well as its connection structure with other structures. 2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) is applicable to this standard.
GB/T 31433 General specification for building curtain walls, windows and doors GB/T 34327 Terminology for curtain wall
GB 50178 Standard of climatic regionalization for architecture
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions, which are defined in GB/T 34327, as well as the following terms and definitions, apply to this document.
3.1
Standard condition
The test conditions where the air temperature is 293 K (20 ??C), the atmospheric pressure is 101.3 kPa (760 mm Hg), the air density is 1.202 kg/m3.
3.2
a) The wind speed at the highest point of the specimen is greater than 5 m/s during testing;
b) When rain, snow, etc. affect the test results.
4.3 The order of grade testing should be carried out, in the order of air permeability and wind pressure deformation resistance p1, watertightness and wind pressure resistance repeated pressurization p2, design wind load standard value of wind pressure resistance product p3, design wind load value of wind pressure resistance product pmax. The order of engineering testing should be carried out, in the order of air permeability and wind pressure deformation resistance p1', watertightness and wind pressure resistance repeated pressurization p2', wind load standard value p3', wind load design value pmax'. 4.4 When there are air permeability performance requirements for the back of the open curtain wall, the air leakage per unit area of the specimen, including the back, is used as the grading index; when conducting wind pressure resistance performance testing, flexible sealing materials shall be used to seal the gaps in the open curtain wall panels, before testing.
4.5 The air permeability performance of a double-layer curtain wall is graded, based on its overall air permeability performance index. The watertightness performance of a double-layer curtain wall is graded, based on the watertightness performance index of the first layer of curtain wall, which has watertight requirements. For the wind pressure resistance of a double-layer curtain wall, the inner layer and outer layer are tested and graded, respectively.
Note: When one layer of the double-layer curtain wall is an open curtain wall, the area of the other layer of curtain wall and the openable joint length are used for the calculation of air permeability testing. When both layers of curtain wall have air permeability, the area of the outer curtain wall and the openable joint length are used for calculation. 4.6 Watertight performance testing is divided into stable pressurization method and fluctuating pressurization method. For engineering testing in tropical storm and typhoon areas, the fluctuating pressure method shall be used. For grade testing and engineering testing in non-tropical storm and typhoon areas, the stable pressurization method can be used. Once the fluctuating pressurization testing has been carried out, the steady pressurization testing can no longer be carried out. The division of tropical storm and typhoon areas shall be carried out, in accordance with the provisions of GB 50178. The maximum testing pressure peak value of watertightness performance shall not be greater than the wind pressure safety testing pressure value.
4.7 Necessary safety protection measures shall be taken during testing. Note: Safety protection includes protection of personnel and protection of instruments and equipment.
Figure 1 -- Schematic diagram of testing device
6.2 Requirements
6.2.1 The opening size of the pressure box shall be able to meet the installation requirements of the specimen. The box shall be able to withstand the pressure difference, that may occur during the testing process.
6.2.2 The pressure box shall have good sealing performance; it shall not affect the water tightness of the observed specimen, which is taken as a minimum requirement. 6.2.3 The installation cross frame, which supports the curtain wall, shall be fixed on a supporting structure, which has sufficient rigidity and strength. Under the maximum test pressure difference, the deflection value of the installation cross frame shall not exceed 1/1000 of its length AND shall not exceed 5 mm. During the test process, it shall be ensured that the specimen is installed firmly; it shall not be tilted or deformed. At the same time, it shall ensure the normal use of the openable part of the specimen. 6.2.4 The air supply equipment shall have the ability to exert positive and negative two- way pressure differences. The pressure control device shall be able to adjust a stable air flow; AND be able to stably provide fluctuating wind pressure, at a period of 3 s ~ 5 s. The peak value and trough value of the fluctuating wind pressure shall meet the testing requirements. The air supply volume and pressure control capability shall meet the requirements of Chapter 8, Chapter 9, Chapter 10.
6.2.5 The spray device shall be able to spray evenly onto the outdoor surface of the specimen, at a spray volume of not less than 4 L/(m2??min). The nozzles shall be evenly arranged; the distance between each nozzle and the specimen should be equal. The water spray volume shall be adjustable; measures shall be taken to ensure the uniformity of the water spray volume.
6.2.6 The measuring device shall meet the following requirements:
a) The two testing points of the differential pressure gauge shall be arranged, nearby on both sides of the specimen. The error of the differential pressure gauge shall not be greater than 1% of the indicated value. The measurement response speed shall meet the requirements of fluctuating pressure measurement;
b) The measurement error of the air flow measuring device shall not be greater than 5% of the indicated value;
c) The measurement error of the water flow meter shall not be greater than 5% of the indicated value;
d) The accuracy of the displacement meter shall reach 0.25% of the full scale. 6.3 Calibration
6.3.1 Please refer to Appendix A, for the calibration method of air flow measurement system.
6.3.2 Please refer to Appendix B, for the calibration method of the sprinkler system. 7 Specimens and installation
7.1 The specimen shall be of sufficient size and configuration. It shall include typical vertical joints, horizontal joints, openable parts. The ratio of the openable parts to the total area of the specimen shall be close to that of the actual project. The specimen shall be able to represent the performance of typical parts of building curtain walls. 7.2 The material, specification, model of the specimen shall be consistent with the drawings, which are provided by the manufacturer.
7.3 The width of the specimen shall include at least one vertical load-bearing member, which is capable of bearing the design load. The height of the specimen shall include at least one floor height; meanwhile there shall be two or more places connected to the load-bearing structure, in the vertical direction.
7.4 When the wind pressure resistance performance test requires the measurement of panel deformation, the curtain wall specimen shall include at least 2 vertical load- bearing members and 3 lateral grids, that bear the design load. The measured deflection of the panel shall be able to simulate the actual state.
7.5 The all-glass curtain wall specimen shall have a complete span height; the width shall have at least 3 glass lateral grids or 4 glass ribs.
7.6 The unit type curtain wall shall have at least one unit, which has the same joints formed by the four sides of the unit and adjacent units as in the actual project; the height shall be greater than 2 floor high; the width shall not be less than 3 lateral grids. 7.7 Point-supported curtain wall specimens shall meet the following requirements: a) There shall be at least 4 glass panels or a complete cross joint, which is consistent with the actual project; the supporting structure shall have at least one typical load-bearing unit.
b) The support structure of the tension cable and rod system shall be tested, according to the actual support span. The pretension force shall be consistent with the design value. The tension cable rod system should test the pretension of the cable.
c) When the support span is greater than 18 m, the performance test of the glass panels and their support devices and the structural static test of the support structure can be used, to simulate the test of the curtain wall system. The performance test of glass panels and their supporting devices shall test at least four glass panels and one typical cross joint, that are consistent with the actual project.
d) Point-supported curtain walls, which are supported by glass ribs, shall also meet the requirements for all-glass curtain walls.
7.8 The specimens of double-layer curtain walls shall meet the following requirements: a) The width of the double-layer curtain wall shall have 3 or more lateral grids; the height shall not be less than 2 floor heights; it shall meet the design requirements; b) The edge sealing of the inner and outer curtain walls shall be consistent with the actual project;
c) The external circulation shall have inter-layer ventilation adjustment, that is consistent with the actual project; the ventilation adjustment device can be closed during testing.
7.9 The installation of the specimen shall meet the design requirements; the stress condition shall be consistent with the actual situation; no special accessories shall be added or other additional measures shall be taken; the specimen shall be dry. 7.10 After the installation of the specimen is completed, it shall be confirmed by the relevant testing parties, before testing can be carried out.
7.11 The sealant shall be cured to meet the testing requirements.
7.12 The sealing material, which is used to close the edge of the specimen, shall be airtight and waterproof. It shall be able to withstand the pressure difference, that may occur during the testing process.
7.13 Air leakage inspection shall be carried out on the box, the edge of the specimen and other parts.
8 Air permeability performance testing
8.1 Preparation before testing
Before testing, the openable part of the specimen shall be opened and closed for no less than 5 times; it is finally closed tightly.
8.2 Testing procedures
See Figure 2, for the pressurization sequence for grade testing. When the project has requirements for air permeability performance testing pressure, the testing pressure can be pressurized, according to the pressure required by the engineering design. The testing opened and closed no less than 5 times.
Figure 3 -- Schematic diagram of the pressurization sequence for engineering testing of air permeability performance
8.3 Preparation for pressurization
Before the positive pressure preparatory pressurization, open and close all openable parts of the specimen for 5 times; finally close them tightly. Apply three pressure pulses, before positive and negative pressure testing, respectively. The absolute value of the pressure difference is 500 Pa; the loading speed is about 100 Pa/s. The pressure stabilizing time is 3 s; the pressure relief time is no less than 1 s.
8.4 Testing of air leakage
8.4.1 Determination of extraneous air leakage qf
8.4.1.1 Fully seal the openable gaps and inlaid gaps on the specimen OR seal the openable parts of the box.
8.4.1.2 Carry out pressurization, according to the pressurization sequence, which is specified in 8.2. The pressure action time of each level shall not be less than 10 s. Apply positive pressure step by step first; then apply negative pressure step by step. Record the air leakage testing values at all levels.
8.4.1.3 When the pressure box?€?s opening is of a fixed size, the extraneous air leakage volume should not be higher than 50% of the air leakage volume of the specimen. When the pressure box?€?s opening is of a non-fixed size, the extraneous air leakage volume should not be higher than the air leakage volume of the specimen. Otherwise, it may use colored smoke or tracer gas, to check for leaks. Conduct testing again, after sealing treatment.
8.4.2 Determination of the sum of extraneous air leakage and fixed part air leakage qfg
The opening gap of the openable part on the specimen is sealed before testing. The testing procedure is the same as 8.4.1.2.
8.4.3 Determination of total volume of air leakage qz
Testing after removing the sealing measures added to the specimen. The testing procedure is the same as 8.4.1.2.
Note: It is allowed to adjust the testing sequence of 8.4.2 and 8.4.3.
8.5 Processing of testing data
8.5.1 Processing of grade testing data
ql - The volume of air leakage per unit of openable joint length, under the action of 10 Pa pressure difference, in cubic meters per meter hour [m3/(m??h)].
8.5.2 Processing of engineering testing data
8.5.2.1 Calculate the overall air leakage volume (including the openable part) qs and the air leakage volume of the openable part of the specimen qk, under the standard state and the pressure difference required by the design, according to formulas (1) ~ (5). 8.5.2.2 Calculate the air leakage volume per unit area (including the openable part) of the specimen qA' and the air leakage volume per unit of openable joint length of the openable part ql', under the design pressure difference, according to formulas (6) and (7). Positive pressure and negative pressure are calculated separately. 8.5.2.3 Under positive pressure and negative pressure conditions, the air leakage volume per unit area (including the openable part) of the specimen qA' and the air leakage volume per unit of openable joint length ql', shall meet the engineering design requirements; otherwise, it shall be judged as not meeting the engineering design requirements.
9 Watertightness performance testing
9.1 Preparation before testing
After the specimen is installed, it shall be inspected. The testing can only be carried out, after it meets the design requirements. Before testing, the openable part of the specimen shall be opened and closed no less than 5 times. It is finally closed tightly. 9.2 Stable pressurization method
Pressurize according to the sequence in Table 1 and Figure 4; follow the steps below: a) Preparatory pressurization: Apply three pressure pulses. The absolute value of the pressure difference is 500 Pa. The pressurization speed is about 100 Pa/s; the pressure duration is 3 s; the pressure relief time is no less than 1 s. b) Sprinkling water: Sprinkle water evenly on the curtain wall specimen; the volume of water sprayed is 3 L/(m2??min).
c) Pressurization: Apply stable pressure while spraying water. During grade testing, pressurize step by step, until serious leakage occurs in fixed parts of the curtain wall. During engineering testing, first pressurize to the watertightness performance index value of the openable part; the pressure shall stabilize for 15 minutes OR until serious leakage occurs in the openable part of the curtain wall. Then pressurize to the watertightness performance index value of the fixed part of the curtain wall; the pressure shall stabilize for 15 minutes OR until there is b) When the unit type curtain wall adopts plug-in force-bearing rods and the unit height is one floor height, it should test the deformation of the rods of adjacent panels at the same time; take the larger deformation as the testing result. When the unit panel is larger, it shall also arrange measurement points, on the internally stressed rod;
c) The glass panels of the all-glass curtain wall shall be tested for mid-span deformation, as one-way simply supported panels, which are supported on glass ribs; the glass ribs shall be tested for deformation as simply supported beams; d) For point-supported curtain wall supporting structures, it shall test the displacements of the structure's supporting points and the node with the largest deflection, separately. Where there are more than one load-bearing stressed rods, it can test the deformation separately; take the larger deformation as the test result. When the supporting structure adopts a two-way force-bearing system, it shall respectively test the deformation in two directions. For point-supported curtain walls, it shall also test the deformation of the panel; the measuring points shall be arranged in the direction with the longer span of the support points;
e) The structural static test of the point-supported glass curtain wall?€?s support structure shall take a full-span support unit. The structure of the support unit shall be the same as the actual project. The pre-tensioning force of the tension cable rod system shall be consistent with the design value. In the location of glass support device, apply synchronously a load that is consistent with the wind load direction and has the same magnitude, to test the deformation of each glass support point;
f) Measuring points are arranged, respectively on the inner and outer layers of the double-layer curtain wall;
g) See Appendix C, for the displacement meter layout of several typical curtain walls; h) The force-bearing supporting components of other types of curtain walls are determined according to the technical requirements or design requirements of relevant standards and specifications.
Note: The symbol ??? in the Figure indicates that the openable part of the specimen must be opened and cl...

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