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GB/T 14950-2009 English PDF (GBT14950-2009)

GB/T 14950-2009 English PDF (GBT14950-2009)

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GB/T 14950-2009: Terms of photogrammetry and remote sensing

This Standard specifies the terms and definitions of photogrammetry and remote sensing, with English and Chinese indexes. This Standard is applicable to the establishment of photogrammetry and remote sensing standards, the preparation of technical documents, the compilation of teaching materials, books and literature.
GB/T 14950-2009
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 07.040
A 77
Replacing GB/T 14950-1994
Terms of photogrammetry and remote sensing
ISSUED ON: FEBRUARY 06, 2009
IMPLEMENTED ON: JUNE 01, 2009
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 4
1 Scope ... 5
2 Classification of photogrammetry ... 5
3 Classification of remote sensing ... 8
4 Data acquisition ... 9
5 Data processing ... 25
6 Results ... 55
Bibliography ... 62
English index ... 63
Terms of photogrammetry and remote sensing
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the terms and definitions of photogrammetry and remote sensing, with English and Chinese indexes (Translator note: this translation version only provides English index).
This Standard is applicable to the establishment of photogrammetry and remote sensing standards, the preparation of technical documents, the compilation of teaching materials, books and literature.
2 Classification of photogrammetry
2.1 photogrammetry
A scientific technique that uses photographic image information to determine the shape, size, spatial location, properties, and relationship of the object. 2.2 aerophotogrammetry; aerial photogrammetry
A photogrammetry that is performed by the images that are acquired by aviation vehicles.
2.3 space photogrammetry
A photogrammetry that is performed by the images that are acquired by
spacecrafts.
2.4 terrestrial photogrammetry
A photogrammetry of the photographed target that is performed by the images of ground photography.
2.5 non-topographic photogrammetry
A photogrammetry of which the purpose is not to measure and prepare a
topographic map.
2.6 hologrammetry
A photogrammetry that uses a certain direction of the laser beam to project on the hologram to obtain a 3D structure image of the original object.
A photogrammetry that is used for biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. 2.17 X-ray photogrammetry
A photogrammetry that is performed by stereopair or more photos acquired by X-ray to determine the part that the photographed subject cannot see directly by the naked eyes.
2.18 underwater photogrammetry
A photogrammetry that is used to map underwater terrain or study underwater objects.
2.19 real-time photogrammetry
A photogrammetry that is completed quickly in real time, that integrates data acquisition, processing and output of results.
2.20 Moire topography
A photogrammetry that uses the Moire effect to form an equivalent fringe directly on the surface of the measured object.
2.21 side-looking radar survey
A photogrammetry that uses a side-view radar to obtain ground target image information.
2.22 stereophotogrammetry
A photogrammetry of building a stereo model that is performed by stereo images.
2.23 analog photogrammetry
A photogrammetry that uses an analog photo with the aid of a cutting device based on the optical-mechanical projection rendezvous method.
2.24 analytical photogrammetry
A photogrammetry that uses an analog photo with an analytical plotter based on the digital projection rendezvous method.
2.25 digital photogrammetry
A photogrammetry that uses digital imagery with a computer technique to extract the geometric and physical characteristics of the object based on the whole process digital method.
3.9 infrared remote sensing
A remote sensing of which the working band of the sensor is limited to the range of the infrared band.
3.10 microwave remote sensing
A remote sensing of which the working band of the sensor is limited to the range of the microwave band.
3.11 active remote sensing
A remote sensing method that the sensor emits a certain frequency of
electromagnetic radiation to the target, and then receives the radiation information returned from the target.
3.12 passive remote sensing
A remote sensing method that receives radiation information directly from the target.
3.13 laser remote sensing
An active remote sensing technique that detects a target by transmitting and receiving lasers.
3.14 hyperspectral remote sensing
A remote sensing technique that in the visible, near-infrared, mid-infrared, and thermal infrared bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, the spectral resolution is higher than one hundredth of a wavelength to the order of nanometers (nm), and the number of spectral channels is up to tens or even hundreds.
4 Data acquisition
4.1 photography
A technique that uses sensors to obtain object images and other related information.
4.2 space photography
A photography of the earth or other cosmic space planets from outside the earth's atmosphere, that uses spacecrafts such as satellites, spacecraft, space shuttles and orbiting space stations as platforms.
4.3 satellite photography
4.14 panoramic photography
A photography that uses a panoramic camera, in a direction perpendicular to the flight, through differential scanning, to constantly change the direction of the optical axis to the ground.
4.15 black-and-white photography
A photography that expresses the image of the photographed subject in
different shades of black, gray and white.
4.16 colour photography
A photography that reproduces color images of the photographed subject in rich colors.
4.17 infrared photography
A photography that obtains the infrared spectrum information of the
photographed subject.
4.18 colour infrared photography
A photography that obtains multiple spectral information of the photographed subject, but has at least one infrared spectral information, which can be combined into a color effect.
4.19 normal case photography
A photography that, at both ends of the photographic baseline, the main optical axes of the two cameras remain horizontal and both are perpendicular to the direction of the photographic baseline.
4.20 parallel-averted photography
A photography that, at both ends of the photographic baseline, the main optical axes of the two cameras remain horizontal and are deflected at the same angle relative to the photographic baseline.
4.21 convergent photography
A photography that, at both ends of the photographic baseline, the main optical axes of the two cameras intersect at an angle on the object side.
4.22 equally tilted photography
A photography that, at both ends of the photographic baseline, the main optical axes of the two cameras remain parallel and are tilted at the same angle relative to the horizontal plane.
4.33 camera station; exposure station
Photography center
The spatial position of the front node of the objective lens at the moment of photography.
4.34 flight line of aerial photography
An airplane route during aerial photography.
4.35 flight block
Aerial photography block
A photography unit that the photography area is divided because the shooting area is too large or due to terrain changes.
4.36 block datum plane
The mean height plane of flight block.
4.37 photographic scale
The ratio of image distance to object distance.
4.38 photo scale
The ratio of the length of a line segment on the photo to the length of the corresponding horizontal line segment on the ground. Usually the line segments have different scales at different positions on the photo.
4.39 photographic flying height
The vertical distance from the photography platform to the reference plane of the flight block.
4.40 absolute flying height
The vertical distance of the photography platform relative to the average sea surface.
4.41 relative flying height
The vertical distance of the photography platform relative to a reference surface on the ground.
4.42 photographic baseline
When acquiring stereopairs, the connection between adjacent cameras.
A general term for the image compositional quality, geometrical quality, and apparent quality of the photographed subject, including image density, contrast, resolution; frame labels and data records, deformation and flatness of film, measurement accuracy of internal orientation elements and distortion of mirror box, measurement accuracy of frame point and grid point coordinates, film making process, mechanical and human damage.
4.53 longitudinal overlap; end overlap; forward overlap
The part that has the images of same area on adjacent images within this route. It is usually expressed in percentage.
4.54 lateral overlap; side overlap; side lap
The part that has the images of same area on adjacent images of adjacent routes. It is usually expressed in percentage.
4.55 mapping strip
A flight line of aerial photography that is directly used as stereo mapping. 4.56 control strip
Structure flight line
Skeleton flight line
In a photogrammetric area, a flight line that is to reduce the layout of the control points of the photo, that is added, that larger scales intersect with the mapping strip and are approximately vertical.
4.57 tilt angle of photograph
In aerial photography, the angle between the main optical axis of the aerial camera and the plumb line or during terrestrial photography, the angle of the camera's main optical axis with respect to the horizontal plane.
4.58 longitudinal tilt; pitch
The component of the photo tilt angle in the direction of the flight line. 4.59 lateral tilt; roll
The component of the photo tilt angle perpendicular to the flight line. 4.60 swing angle; yaw
The angle by which the selected photo axis is rotated around the main optical axis in the photo plane.
4.71 fiducial mark
A mark on the camera film frame that is used to calibrate the center of shadow plane.
4.72 distance of fiducial marks
The distance between the corresponding fiducial marks.
4.73 photograph center
The intersection of the connecting lines of the opposite fiducial marks on the photograph.
4.74 camera calibration field
A specialized venue for testing various parameters of the camera.
4.75 resolution of photography
Resolution
The ability to measure the image resolution of linear target images with equal width between black and white, expressed in line pairs per millimeter.
4.76 image resolution
A measure of the detail ability of image to reproduce objects.
4.77 ground resolution
The ground size corresponding to image resolution.
4.78 area weighted average resolution; AWAR
The average resolution calculated by taking the ratio of the area of the inner ring zone to the total area of the image frame corresponding to the test angle. 4.79 angle resolution
An opening angle of lens center to resolution line of photography to width. 4.80 density of image
A measure of the brightness of the image, expressed in common logarithm of light blocking rate.
4.81 fog density
A certain density value formed of the unlit portion on the film after developing. 4.92 velocity-height ratio
The ratio of ground speed of plane to relative altitude.
4.93 displacement of image; image displacement
The difference between the conformation point of target point on the photograph and its ideal point.
4.94 forward motion compensation; FMC
Image motion compensation
Automatic compensation correction of image point displacement caused by forward movement of the sensor platform relative to the captured target. 4.95 photographic material deformation
Geometrical changes of photographic materials due to material properties, production process, photographic processing and environment.
4.96 lens distortion
The aberration of the photographed object because the incident angle and the exit angle cannot be strictly equal when the off-axis main ray passes through the objective lens.
4.97 photogrammetric distortion
The deviation of the obtained image point from the ideal position of the distortion-free image after measuring under certain conditions according to the requirements of photogrammetry.
4.98 image data acquisition
The process of using a sensor to obtain analog or digital images of the studied object.
4.99 spectral energy distribution
The relationship between energy and wavelength radiated by energy at
different temperatures.
4.100 spectral emissivity
The ratio of the energy of an object's radiated electromagnetic waves to the emitted energy of a black body at the same temperature.
4.101 spectral reflectivity
Some specific electromagnetic bands of higher transmittance that the earth's atmosphere does not have a strong absorption and scattering attenuation effect on electromagnetic wave transmission.
4.111 atmospheric noise
The interference of the atmosphere to the measured electromagnetic waves. 4.112 characteristic of atmospheric transmission
The effect of electromagnetic waves by atmospheric scattering and absorption during transmission in the atmosphere, the law of radiation energy attenuation. 4.113 atmospheric transmissivity; atmospheric transmittance
The ratio of radiant energy to incident radiant energy after an electromagnetic wave passes a given path length in the atmosphere.
4.114 object spectrum characteristic
The characteristic that an object emits, absorbs, reflects, scatters and transmits electromagnetic wave radiant energy, generates spectral signals related to the characteristics of the object.
4.115 orbit elements of satellite; orbit parameters of satellite
Various parameters that describe the position, shape and orientation of satellites in space.
4.116 orbital altitude
The average altitude of a spacecraft orbiting the earth's surface.
4.117 orbital inclination
The angle between the spacecraft orbital plane and the earth's equatorial plane. 4.118 satellite perturbance
Satellite jitters in an ideal orbit due to uneven mass distribution and aspheric symmetry, the gravitational pull of the moon and other stars, atmospheric resistance, and solar pressure.
4.119 satellite attitude
The space state of a satellite itself in its orbit.
4.120 satellite coverage
Elevation control point
A photo control point that only has ground elevation.
4.131 outstanding point; natural point
A feature point that can be accurately identified in photos, videos, and the field. 4.132 artificial target; signalized point; artificial point
A target point that is artificially set on the ground, that has a composition on a photo or video, before photographing.
4.133 photographic normal point; standard point of photo; Gruber point
Photo standard configuration point
Gruber point
6 orientation points required during relative orientation, of which two points are on the left and right main points and the rest points above and below the main point are approximately equal to the length of the baseline.
4.134 control point distribution for aerial triangulation strip
A scheme that sets up photo control points with a route segment as unit. 4.135 control point distribution for block aerotriangulation
A scheme that sets up photo control points with several route segments or several maps as an area.
4.136 full field control point distribution
A scheme that sets up photo control points with a photo or a stereo as unit. 4.137 control point distribution for control (skeleton) strip
Structure route layout
Skeleton route layout
A scheme that controls routes by route network, that, in the area where the control route overlaps with the survey route, the control route encrypts the material map route control points.
4.138 bridging distance of control points along strips; control point
interval along strips
The number of photo baselines across adjacent photo control points in the Time-baseline parallax
A method that, at the same camera station, obtains stereo image pairs of moving or deformed objects at certain time intervals, and measures the
displacement or deformation of object movements according to the change of measuring parallax.
4.147 relative control
Use the known geometric condition relationship between some unknown points in object space as the basis for photogrammetric control.
4.148 longitudinal distance of photography
The distance from the front node of the camera objective to the projection surface of the target in terrestrial photogrammetry or close-range
photogrammetry.
4.149 photographic coefficient
The ratio of photographic longitudinal distance to photographic baseline length. 4.150 Lidar
A system that transmits laser beams and receives echoes to obtain 3D
information of the target.
4.151 synthetic aperture radar; SAR
A remote sensing system that, based on Doppler shift theory and radar
coherence, comprehensively process the radar echo amplitude and phase data. 4.152 lidar bathymetric system
A sounding system that a transmitter vertically emits short-wave high-power laser pulses, measures time delay between water surface and water bottom, compares the energy difference between the two to achieve a signal that reflects the different water depths.
4.153 radar altimetry
A process that uses a radar altimeter to measure the distance perpendicular to the earth's surface based on the orbit of a remote sensing platform.
5 Data processing
5.1 photographic processing
An operating process of converting an oblique photo into a horizontal photo of a predetermined scale through projection conversion.
5.12 elements of interior orientation; interior orientation elements
Directional elements inside photo
Basic parameters to determine the geometric relationship of the photographic beam on the image side, that is, the image plane coordinate values (x0, y0) of the principal point and the camera principal distance value (fk).
5.13 elements of exterior orientation; exterior orientation elements
Directional elements outside photo
Basic parameters to determine the geometric relationship of the photographic beam in the object side, including three position parameters and three attitude parameters.
5.14 rectification point
A control point for photo correction.
5.15 graphical rectification
An operating process that, according to the perspective theory, uses the complex ratio or perspective correspondence between the photo plane and the drawing surface to establish the corresponding ray beam or perspective grid for rendering.
5.16 optical graphical rectification
Projection rendering
An operating process that uses a projection renderer to project the image to be corrected onto the drawing board for correction and rendering.
5.17 affine rectification
Photo correction that maintains straight parallelism in the graphics before and after correction.
5.18 relief displacement
Image point displacement caused by topographic relief on center projection image.
5.19 distance of rectification zone
Intersection point that, in the main vertical plane, the center of the projection is used to make any straight parallel lines on the ground plane and the photo plane. 5.29 main vanishing point
Intersection point that, in the main vertical plane, parallel lines pass through the center of the projection plane and the ground plane.
5.30 rotation axiom of the perspective; ...

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