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GB/T 13594-2003 English PDF (GBT13594-2003)

GB/T 13594-2003 English PDF (GBT13594-2003)

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GB/T 13594-2003: Antilock braking performance and test procedure for motor vehicles and their trailers

This standard specifies the braking performance and test methods, which are required for vehicles equipped with antilock braking systems. This standard applies to the categories M, N motor vehicles and category O trailers, which are equipped with antilock braking systems.
GB/T 13594-2003
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.040.40
T 24
Replacing GB 13594-1992
Antilock braking performance and test procedure for motor
vehicles and their trailers
ISSUED ON: JULY 01, 2003
IMPLEMENTED ON: DECEMBER 01, 2003
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of PRC
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative references ... 5
3 Definitions ... 5
4 Categories ... 7
5 Performance requirements and test methods ... 8
Appendix A (Normative) ... 16
Appendix B (Normative) Utilization rate of adhesion coefficient ... 18 Appendix C (Normative) Braking performance on road pavements with different adhesion coefficients (bisectional road pavement) ... 23
Appendix D (Normative) Selection method of road pavement with low adhesion coefficient ... 24
Appendix E (Informative) Test procedure for vehicles equipped with antilock braking systems ... 26
Antilock braking performance and test procedure for motor
vehicles and their trailers
1 Scope
This standard specifies the braking performance and test methods, which are required for vehicles equipped with antilock braking systems.
This standard applies to the categories M, N motor vehicles and category O trailers, which are equipped with antilock braking systems.
2 Normative references
The provisions in following documents become the provisions of this Standard through reference in this Standard. For the dated references, the subsequent amendments (excluding corrections) or revisions do not apply to this Standard; however, parties who reach an agreement based on this Standard are encouraged to study if the latest versions of these documents are applicable. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document applies.
GB 4094 Motor vehicles - Symbols for controls, indicators and tell-tales GB 12676-1999 Automobile braking systems - Structure, performance and test methods
GB/T 15089 Classification of power-driven vehicles and trailers
GB/T 17619 Limits and methods of testing for immunity of electrical/electronic sub- assemblies in vehicles to electromagnetic radiation
GB 18655 Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics for the protection of receivers used on board vehicles (GB 18655-2002, IEC/CISPR 25:1995, IDT)
ISO 7638 The standard for connecting ABS/EBS systems of a trailer
3 Definitions
The following terms and definitions apply to this standard.
system, shall meet one of the following conditions.
4.2.1 Category A antilock braking system
Trailers, which are equipped with category A antilock braking systems, shall meet all relevant performance requirements of this standard.
4.2.2 Category B antilock braking system
Trailers, which are equipped with category B antilock braking systems, shall meet all relevant performance requirements of this standard, except 5.3.3.2.
5 Performance requirements and test methods
For tractors and air brake trailers, that are allowed to be towed by trailers, they shall meet the requirements of braking coordination, in Appendix A of GB 12676-1999, when fully loaded.
The current antilock braking system consists of sensors, controllers, modulators. Any other systems of different structures, that may be adopted in the future or incorporating antilock braking functions into other systems, are considered antilock braking systems, as defined in this standard, as long as they provide the same performance, which is specified in this standard.
5.1 General requirements
5.1.1 For any electrical failure or sensor malfunction, that affects the system function and performance requirements, which are specified in this standard, including failure of power supply, controller's external circuit, controller and modulator, dedicated visible alarm signal shall be used to alarm the driver. The alarm signal shall meet the requirements of GB 4094, for yellow alarm signal device.
Note: Before a unified test procedure is reached, the manufacturer shall provide the technical department, with an analysis of the potential failure of the controller and its consequences. This information shall be agreed upon, by the manufacturer and the technical department. 5.1.1.1 For the abnormality of the sensor, that cannot be detected under static conditions, it shall be detected before the vehicle speed exceeds 10 km/h3). However, since the wheels do not rotate, under static conditions, the sensor cannot generate vehicle speed signals. To avoid generating wrong alarm signal, it may delay the detection BUT it shall confirm that the sensor works normally, before the vehicle speed is more than 15 km/h. 5.1.1.2 When the vehicle is stationary BUT the antilock braking system is energized, 3 If there is no failure, the alarm single extinguishes, before the vehicle speed reaches 10 km/h or 15 km/h; the alarm signal may light up again, when the vehicle is stationary.
braking system has been cut off OR the control mode has been changed: the warning signal for antilock braking failure shall meet the requirements of GB 4094, for the yellow warning signal device. The signal can be always on or flashing.
5.1.5.3 When the ignition switch is reset to the "ON" (running) position, the antilock braking system must automatically re-engage or return to driving mode.
5.1.5.4 The vehicle's instruction manual, which is provided by the manufacturer, shall warn the driver of the consequences of manually cutting off or changing the control mode of the antilock braking system.
5.1.5.5 The device, which is mentioned in 5.1.5, can cut off or change the control mode of the trailer's antilock braking system, when the trailer is attached to the tractor. Trailers shall not use this device alone.
5.2 Special requirements for motor vehicles
5.2.1 Energy consumption
Motor vehicles, which are equipped with antilock braking systems, must maintain their performance, under long-term full-travel service braking. The following tests shall be carried out, to verify compliance with this requirement.
5.2.1.1 Test procedure
5.2.1.1.1 The initial energy level of the energy storage device shall comply with the manufacturer's requirements. The size of its energy shall at least ensure that the vehicle can achieve the performance, which is required by the service braking, when the vehicle is fully loaded. The energy storage device of the pneumatic auxiliary equipment must be isolated.
5.2.1.1.2 On a road pavement, which has an adhesion coefficient equal to or less than 0.3 5), a fully loaded vehicle brakes at an initial speed of not less than 50 km/h for a full travel; the braking time is t; it shall take into account of the energy, which is consumed by the indirectly controlled wheels, during the entire braking period; all directly controlled wheels must be under the control of the antilock braking system. 5.2.1.1.3 Stop the engine or cut off the energy supply to the energy storage device. 5.2.1.1.4 When the vehicle is stationary, actuate the service brake, continuously for 4 full strokes.
5.2.1.1.5 When the 5th braking is performed, it must be ensured that the fully loaded vehicle can at least achieve the specified emergency braking efficiency. 5 Before such road pavement is generally used, when the tire which is worn to limit value and the adhesion coefficient reaches up to 0.4, it may be decided by the technical department through consideration; meanwhile it shall record the actual value, tire model, road pavement conditions.
5.2.1.1.6 For vehicles, that are allowed to be attached to air brake trailers, the air supply pipeline shall be closed, during the test, meanwhile a 0.5 L air reservoir shall be connected to the control pipeline, according to 6.17.1.1 b) of GB 12676-1999. During the 5th braking as specified in 5.2.1.1.5, the pressure of the control pipeline shall not be lower than half of the energy level, which is obtained when braking with the initial energy at full stroke.
5.2.1.2 Additional requirements
5.2.1.2.1 The road pavement's adhesion coefficient shall be measured by the test vehicle, according to the method described in B.1.1 in Appendix B.
5.2.1.2.2 The brake test shall be performed, by a fully loaded vehicle, when the engine disconnected and running at idle speed.
5.2.1.2.3 The braking time t is determined by the formula t = vmax/7 (not less than 15 s), where the unit of t, in the formula, is s; the vmax is the maximum design speed (km/h), which has an upper limit of 160 km/h.
5.2.1.2.4 If the time of one braking cannot reach the t value, the braking can be carried out in stages, but the maximum is 4.
5.2.1.2.5 If the test is carried out in stages, energy shall not be supplemented, between each braking.
From stage 2 onwards, corresponding to the energy consumption at the start of braking, it can be considered minus 1 from the 4 full-stroke actuations, which is specified in 5.2.1.1.4 (and 5.2.1.1.5, 5.2.1.1.6, 5.2.1.2.6); it applies to each braking in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th stages of the test, which is specified in 5.2.1.1.
5.2.1.2.6 After the 4th actuation, when the vehicle is stationary, if the energy in the energy storage device is equal to or higher than the energy required for emergency braking of the fully loaded vehicle, then it is deemed as meeting the performance specified in 5.2.1.1.5.
5.2.2 Utilization rate of adhesion coefficient
5.2.2.1 For the utilization rate of the adhesion coefficient of the antilock braking system it shall consider that the actual braking distance exceeds the theoretical minimum value. If ?? ??? 0.75 is satisfied, the antilock braking system is considered to meet the requirements, where ?? is the utilization rate of adhesion coefficient, which is defined in Appendix B.1.2.
5.2.2.2 The utilization rate of the adhesion coefficient, ??, shall be measured, at an initial speed of 50 km/h, on two road pavements, which have an adhesion coefficient equal to or less than 0.3 5) and about 0.8 (dry road pavement), respectively. In order to eliminate the influence of different temperatures of the brake, it is recommended to measure zAL 5.2.3.2 When an axle drives from a road pavement, which has high adhesion coefficient kH, to a road pavement, which has low adhesion coefficient kL, meanwhile kH ??? 0.5 and kH/kL ??? 2 8), if braking rapidly with full force 6), THEN, the directly controlled wheels shall not lock. The driving speed and the timing of braking shall be so determined that the antilock braking system can fully circulate on the road pavement, which has high adhesion coefficient; meanwhile the vehicle drives from the road pavement with high adhesion coefficient to the road pavement with low adhesion coefficient, at the high and low speeds, which are specified in 5.2.3.1.
5.2.3.3 When the vehicle is driving from a road pavement, which has low adhesion coefficient (kL), to a road pavement, which has high adhesion coefficient (kH), meanwhile kH ??? 0.5 and kH/kL ??? 2 8), if braking with full force, THEN, the deceleration of the vehicle shall be increased significantly, within a suitable period of time; meanwhile the vehicle shall not deviate from the original driving route. The driving speed and braking time shall be so determined that the antilock braking system can fully cycle on road pavement, which has low adhesion coefficient; the vehicle is driven from one road pavement to another, at a speed of about 50 km/h.
5.2.3.4 For vehicles equipped with category 1 or category 2 antilock braking systems, when the left and right wheels of the vehicle are located on the road pavements, which have two different adhesion coefficients (kH and kL), meanwhile kH ??? 0.5 and kH/kL ??? 2 8), if braking at full force 6), at an initial speed of 50 km/h, THEN, the directly controlled wheel shall not lock.
5.2.3.5 In addition, a fully loaded vehicle, which is equipped with a category 1 antilock braking system, shall have the braking strength as specified in Appendix C, under the conditions of 5.2.3.4.
5.2.3.6 During the tests, which are specified in 5.2.3.1, 5.2.3.2, 5.2.3.3, 5.2.3.4, 5.2.3.5, the wheels are allowed to lock up shortly. In addition, the wheels are also allowed to lock, when the vehicle speed is below 15 km/h. Likewise, indirectly controlled wheels are allowed to lock at any speed, BUT it shall not affect the vehicle's driving stability and steering ability.
5.2.3.7 During the tests specified in 5.2.3.4 and 5.2.3.5, steering can be used to correct the driving direction; the steering wheel's angle shall not exceed 120??, within the initial 2 s; the total steering angle shall not exceed 240??. In addition, at the beginning of these tests, the longitudinal center plane of the vehicle shall pass through the boundary, between the road pavements, which have high and low adhesion coefficients. No part of the tire (casing) shall cross this boundary, during the test.
5.3 Special requirements for trailers
5.3.1 Energy consumption
8 kH is the high cohesion coefficient, kL is the low cohesion coefficient. kH and kL are measured, in accordance with the provisions of Appendix B.
After a period of full-travel braking with the service brake, a trailer, which is equipped with an antilock braking system, shall ensure that it has enough energy to stop, within an appropriate distance.
5.3.1.1 The following procedures shall be followed, to check whether the above requirements are met. The test is carried out on a flat road pavement, which has a good adhesion coefficient 9), when the vehicle is unloaded; the brake clearance is adjusted as small as possible; the proportional valve/load-sensing valve (when equipped) is placed in the "full load" position, throughout the test.
5.3.1.2 For the air brake system, the initial energy of the trailer's energy storage device shall be equivalent to the energy, when the pressure at the air supply pipeline joint of the trailer is 0.8 MPa.
5.3.1.3 At an initial speed of at least 30 km/h, apply full stroke braking to the brakes for t = 15 s, during which all wheels shall be under the control of the antilock braking system. During the test, the energy supply to the trailer's energy storage device shall be cut off.
If a braking time cannot reach t = 15 s, it can be carried out in stages. During braking, energy shall not be supplemented to the energy storage device. From stage 2 onwards, it shall consider the additional energy consumption for charging the brake chambers, for example, the following test procedure can be used.
At the beginning of the first stage, the pressure in the trailer's energy storage device is the pressure, which is described in 5.3.1.2. At the beginning of each subsequent stage, after braking, the pressure in the energy storage device shall not be lower than the pressure in the energy storage device, at the end of the previous stage of braking. The braking time of each subsequent stage is calculated from the time, when the pressure of the trailer's energy storage device is equal to the pressure at the end of the previous stage of braking.
5.3.1.4 After the braking test, the vehicle is stationary; carry out 4 full-stroke actuation, for the service brake. At the 5th braking, the pressure in the working circuit is sufficient to make the sum of the braking force of the wheel periphery not less than 22.5% of the sum of the maximum static load of the wheel, meanwhile it will not cause any braking system to brake by itself, without the control of the antilock braking system. 5.3.2 Utilization rate of adhesion coefficient
5.3.2.1 If the braking system, which is equipped with antilock braking system, satisfies ?? ??? 0.75, it is considered to meet the requirements, where ?? is the utilization rate of the adhesion coefficient, which is defined in Chapter B.2. This condition shall be checked, 9 If the adhesion coefficient of the test track is too high, the antilock braking system cannot be fully circulated, AND the test can be carried out on a road pavement, which has a lower adhesion coefficient. Appendix E
(Informative)
Test procedure for vehicles equipped with antilock braking systems
E.1 General
The vehicle manufacturer shall provide the details of the test vehicle (including coordination calculations); declare the type of antilock braking system. The test shall select a road pavement, which has a low adhesion coefficient, according to the requirements of Appendix D; report the details of the specified information to the technical department.
This test procedure shall be carried out, after all the type 0 tests have been completed, before type I and type II tests.
Note: In the following, "full force" refers to the maximum control force of the vehicle, which is specified in Chapter 5 of GB 12676-1999; if it is required to make the antilock braking system work, a larger force can be used.
E.2 Measuring instruments
E.2.1 Wheel speed/vehicle speed measuring device (accuracy not less than 1%), deceleration measuring instrument (accuracy not less than 5%), data processing recorder.
E.2.2 Pedal force sensor (accuracy not less than 2%), pipeline pressure sensor (accuracy not less than 2%), pressure regulating device (accuracy not less than 2%), thermometer (accuracy not less than 5%).
E.2.3 If necessary, it must install equipment, to monitor whether the wheels are locked and the locking time (accuracy not less than 0.1 s).
E.2.4 When measuring the k value, it needs installing a pressure-limiting valve, which has an adjustable pressure (accuracy not less than 2%), in the pipeline connecting each wheel.
E.3 Test conditions
E.3.1 The test site and climatic conditions are as specified in 6.1 and 6.2 of GB 12676- 1999, respectively.
E.3.2 The road pavement types are as follows:
Road pavement of low adhesion coefficient, which has an adhesion coefficient less than or equal to 0.3;
Road pavement of high adhesion coefficient, which has an adhesion coefficient of about 0.8;
Bisectional road pavement;
Joint road pavement.
E.4 Test preparation
E.4.1 Check the information, which is provided by the automobile manufacturer, to confirm the type of antilock braking system.
E.4.2 Vehicle loading shall be in accordance with the provisions in 6.3 of GB 12676- 1999.
E.4.3 The vehicle is prepared according to the provisions in 6.4 of GB 12676-1999. E.4.4 Confirm that the test instrument, which is specified in Chapter E.2, has been installed on the vehicle and calibrated.
E.5 General inspection
E.5.1 Inspection of alarm devices
E.5.1.1 Check that the special yellow warning signal device specified in 5.1.1 is installed; the signal is clearly visible even in the daytime; the driver shall be alarmed, when the antilock braking system fails.
E.5.1.2 When the vehicle is stationary and the antilock braking system is powered on, the alarm signal lights up. The system self-checks; if there is no fault, the alarm signal goes out. During inspection, the electronically controlled air pressure regulating valve shall be cycled, at least once.
E.5.1.3 Sensor abnormalities, that cannot be detected under static conditions, shall be detected before the vehicle speed exceeds 10 km/h. However, since the wheel does not rotate under static conditions, the sensor cannot generate a vehicle speed signal. In order to prevent false alarm signals from being issued, the detection can be postponed, BUT the sensor shall be confirmed to work normally, before the vehicle speed is greater than 15 km/h.
E.5.1.4 For motor vehicles (except categories M1 and N1 vehicles), that are...

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