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GB/T 13298-2015 English PDF (GBT13298-2015)

GB/T 13298-2015 English PDF (GBT13298-2015)

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GB/T 13298-2015: Inspection methods of microstructure for metals

This Standard specifies the specimen preparedness, specimen grinding, specimen polishing, microstructure display, microstructure test, on-site metallographic and test records for the metal microstructure inspection. This Standard is applicable to the operation method of using metallographic microscope to inspect the metal structure.
GB/T 13298-2015
ICS 77.040.99
H 24
Replacing GB/T 13298-1991
Inspection Methods of Microstructure for Metals
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Specimen Preparedness ... 5
4 Specimen Grinding ... 10
5 Specimen Polishing ... 11
6 Microstructure Displaying ... 12
7 Microstructure Inspection ... 15
8 On-Site Metallographic Inspection... 18
9 Test Report ... 18
Appendix A (Informative) Etchants Commonly Used by Metal ... 19
This Standard was drafted as per the rules specified in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Standard replaces GB/T 13298-1991 Inspection Methods of Microstructure for Metals; compared with GB/T 13298-1991, this Standard mainly has the following technical changes.
--- Modify specimen preparation into ?€?specimen preparedness?€? (see Chapter 3); --- Increase two situations for specimen selection (see 3.1);
--- Add the schematic diagram for inspection surface (see 3.2.1);
--- Add ?€?band structure rating?€? for the inspection of longitudinal section parallel to the rolling direction (see 3.2.3);
--- Add ?€?specimen mark?€? (see 3.5);
--- Adopt clear ?€?mechanical setting fixture diagram?€? (see 3.7.2);
--- Add the vibration polishing (see 5.5);
--- Modify ?€?specimen erosion?€? into ?€?microstructure display?€?; add the general (see 6.1), optical method (see 6.2), thermal etching display method (see 6.3.5), anodic film method (see 6.4.2); delete the preparation and precautions of chemical etchants and electrolytic etchants (see 4.1.3 of 1991 Edition); --- Delete ?€?metallographic microscope is divided into desktop-type, vertical-type, horizontal-type?€? (see 5.2 of 1991 Edition);
--- Delete ?€?precautions for protecting lenses when using a microscope?€? (see 5.5, 1991 Edition);
--- Delete ?€?making the shadow photograph on the glass plate clear; if necessary, use focusing magnifier to observe on the ground-glass plate?€? (see 6.6 of 1991 Edition);
--- Microstructure inspection part (see Chapter 7), delete photographing with black- and-white negative film and colour negative film, ?€?black-and-white negative film and photographic paper processing?€? (see 6.10 of 1991 Edition), and ?€?color negative film and color photographic paper processing?€? (see 6.11 of 1991 Edition); add microscope illumination mode (see 7.2.1); add image acquisition (see 7.3) and image analysis part (see 7.4).
--- Add ?€?on-site metallographic inspection?€? (see Chapter 8);
Inspection Methods of Microstructure for Metals
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the specimen preparedness, specimen grinding, specimen polishing, microstructure display, microstructure test, on-site metallographic and test records for the metal microstructure inspection.
This Standard is applicable to the operation method of using metallographic microscope to inspect the metal structure.
2 Normative References
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
YB/T 4377 Electrolytic Polishing Method of Metallographic Specimen
3 Specimen Preparedness
3.1 Specimen selection
3.1.1 General
To ensure the effectiveness of inspection, the selected metallographic specimen shall represent the researched materials objectively and comprehensively as much as possible. The specimen cutting direction, location, quantity shall be determined by the metal manufacturing method, inspection purpose, relevant standards, and provisions of both parties?€? agreement.
3.1.2 Routine inspection
In addition to the special provisions in the product standard, it is recommended to select from the position that can represent the characteristics of the materials; the specimen shall contain the complete processing and impact area. For instance, the specimen of steel strip or wire is suitable to cut from the end of the coil; cast specimen shall contain the maximum and minimum segregation zones; heat treatment specimen shall contain complete heat treatment layer; surface treatment specimen shall contain all surface treatment layers; welding specimen shall contain weld seam, heat affected zone, and base metal.
during the cutting period, so that prevent the structure changes.
3.5 Specimen mark
In order to avoid confusion during the specimen preparedness period, the specimen registration and marking shall be done well. Once the specimen is cut, print and engrave mark beyond the inspection surface of the specimen; ensure the mark shall not be worn, shielded during the specimen cleaning and heat treatment processes. If the specimen requires follow-up embedding, then make marks again after embedding. 3.6 Specimen cleaning
If the specimen surface is stained with grease, dirt, or residue, proper solvent (such as alcohol, acetone, and etc.) can be used to clean; cleaning can be conducted in the ultrasonic wave. Any metal coating that hinders the corrosion of the base metal shall be removed prior to grinding.
3.7 Specimen embedding
3.7.1 General
The following conditions of specimens need embedding such as small size specimen (such as sheet, ribbon material, thin tube, and etc.), too soft and brittle specimen, irregular specimen, inspecting the specimen edge structure, using automatic grinding and polishing machine for the specimen preparation. The applied embedding method shall not change the original structure; the inspection surface of the specimen shall be downward during the embedding period. According to the actual needs, the mechanical embedding (see 3.7.2) or resin embedding (see 3.7.3) methods shall be selected.
3.7.2 Mechanical embedding method Fasten the specimen in a suitable fixture with bolts and screws (see Figure 2). The fixture hardness shall be close to the specimen hardness; so as to reduce the rounding role against the edges when grinding and polishing the specimen; the fixture composition shall be similar to the specimen to avoid forming the galvanic interaction influencing the corrosion effect.
NOTE. pay attention that the specimen shall closely contact with the fixture; be careful when fixing the specimen; if the clamping force is too large, it may damage the soft material specimen. To reduce the penetration of polishing agent and etchant, the sheet made of soft materials can be used to fill the gaps of specimen; which shall ensure no electrolytic reaction shall occur between filling materials and specimen during the corrosion period. The typical filling materials include thin plastic sheet, lead or copper. In order to reduce the absorption of gaps against the polishing agent and etchant, the epoxide resin layer can paint to the specimen before holding; or immerse the specimen 5 Specimen Polishing
5.1 General
Polish the grinding mark on the specimen to reach the mirror finish, and there are no grinding defects. The polishing method can take mechanical polishing, electrolytic polishing, chemical polishing, vibration polishing, micro-grinding and so on. 5.2 Mechanical polishing
5.2.1 Rough polishing
After the burnishing of sand paper, the specimen can be transferred to the polishing machine equipped with nylon, woolen cloth or fine canvas to conduct rough polishing; the polishing agent can use the find-grained diamond, alumina, magnesia, chromic oxide, iron oxide, emery, and the like; the type of polishing agent includes polishing suspension, spray polishing agent, polishing paste, and etc.. The polishing time shall be 2min ~ 5min. After polishing, use water to clean and dry.
5.2.2 Precise polishing After rough polishing, the specimen can be transferred to the polishing disk equipped with nylon silk, velvet, or other fiber-uniform velour to conduct the precise polishing. According to the specimen hardness, different grain size of fine polishing paste, spray polishing agent, oxide suspension, and etc.. Pay attention to the polishing time and force, so as to avoid the specimen corner rounding or embossing. Generally, the polishing shall be continued till the grinding mark on the specimen is totally removed, and the surface becomes the mirror. After polishing, use water to wash; use absolute alcohol to clean and dry; so that the specimen surface has no water stains or dirt residue any more. Precise polishing can select the manual or automatic methods. When manual polishing, gently press the specimen on the polishing disk; and polish back and forth along the disk diameter direction. Control the flannel humidity, to avoid influencing the polishing quality (too large h...

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