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GB/T 10561-2005 English PDF (GBT10561-2005)

GB/T 10561-2005 English PDF (GBT10561-2005)

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GB/T 10561-2005: Steel -- Determination of content of nonmetallic inclusions -- Micrographic method using standards diagrams

GB/T 10561-2005
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 77.040.30
H 24
GB/T 10561-2005 / ISO 4967.1998(E)
Replacing GB/T 10561-1989
Steel - Determination of content of nonmetallic inclusions
- Micrographic method using standard diagrams
(ISO 4967.1998, IDT)
ISSUED ON. MAY 13, 2005
IMPLEMENTED ON. OCTOBER 01, 2005
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Principle ... 5
3 Sampling ... 7
4 Preparation of specimens ... 11
5 Determination of the content of inclusions ... 11
6 Expression of results ... 14
7 Test report ... 15
Annex A (normative) ISO Chart diagrams for inclusion groups A, B, C, D and DS ... 17
Annex B (informative) Assessment of a field and of oversized inclusions or stringers ... 32
Annex C (informative) Typical example of results (the total number of fields showing the index, by type of inclusion, for a given number of fields observed) ... 35
Annex D (informative) Relationship between chart diagram indices and
inclusion measurements ... 39
Annex NA (informative) Sampling method and sampling of other products ... 46 Foreword
This Standard is identical to ISO 4967.1998 (E) “Steel - Determination of content of nonmetallic inclusions - Micrographic method using standard diagrams”.
This Standard replaces GB/T 10561-1989 “Steel - Determination of content of non- metallic inclusion - Micrographic method using standard diagrams”.
This Standard is identical to translating ISO 4967.1998 (E).
For ease of use, this Standard made the following editorial modifications to ISO 4967.1998.
a) REPLACE the word “International Standard” with “this Standard”;
b) USE “.” to replace “,” as the decimal point;
c) DELETE the foreword of the International Standard.
d) ADD the Annex NA.
Compared with GB/T 10561-1989, main changes of this Standard are as follows. a) CHANGE the standard name from “Steel - Determination of content of non- metallic inclusion - Micrographic method using standard diagrams” to “Steel - Determination of content of nonmetallic inclusions - Micrographic method using standard diagrams”;
b) BROADENED the scope of the standard (see Clause 1);
c) ADD the clause “Principle” (see Clause 2);
d) ADD the chart diagram analysis method (see Annex D);
e) MODIFY the rating limits, width parameters, sampling dimensions, rating rules, shape and dimensions of field (see Table 1, Table 2, Clause 3, Subclauses 5.1 and 5.2.3);
f) CHANGE the standard chart diagram from JK diagrams and ASTM diagrams TO a set of ISO chart diagrams (see Annex A);
g) CHANGE the sampling method and sampling method for other products to an informative annex (see 2.1.5 and Figure 5 of 1993 edition, Annex NA of this edition).
This Standard has corrected the errors in ISO 9001.1998, mainly as follows. a) In Table 1, the total length of B2 inclusions is changed from “342 μm” to “343 μm”; b) In Table 2, the “>” symbol is added before the numbers in the “Minimum width” column of the thick series;
c) REPRODUCE Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 6;
d) In the examples of method A in 6.2, the original “B 2s” is changed to “B 2.5s”; e) Above the figure of DS inclusions in Annex A, the original diameter “> 13 μm ~ 76 μm” to “13 μm ~ 76 μm”;
f) In Table C.1 of Annex C, “1” of group A thick series inclusions with a field number 8 is changed to “—”;
g) In Table C.1 of Annex C, “—” of group D thick series inclusions with a field number 12 is changed to “1 s”
h) In Table C.2 of Annex C, “1” of group D thick series inclusions with a field index of 1 is changed to “2”;
i) In C.3.1 of Annex C, replace “(see 6.2)” with “(see 6.3)”;
j) In the formula of C.4 of Annex C, replace the original “ ”
with “ ”.
In this Standard, Annex A is a normative annex, Annexes B, C, D, NA are informative annexes.
This Standard is proposed by China Iron and Steel Association.
This Standard is under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee on Steel of Standardization Administration of China.
Drafting organizations of this Standard. Shanghai 5th Steel Co., Ltd. of Baosteel Group, China Metallurgical Information and Standardization Institute, Fushun Special Steel (Group) Co., Ltd., Dalian Jinniu Co., Ltd.
Main drafters of this Standard. He Qunxiong, Luan Yan, Zhou Liandi, Zeng Wentao, Zhen Juan, Sun Shiqiu.
This Standard was first issued in March 1989.
Steel - Determination of content of nonmetallic inclusions
- Micrographic method using standards diagrams
1 Scope
This Standard specifies a micrographic method of determining the nonmetallic inclusions in rolled or forged steel products having a reduction ratio of at least 3 using standard diagrams. This method is widely used to assess the suitability of a steel for a given use. However, since it is difficult to achieve reproducible results owing to the influence of the test operator, even with a large number of specimens, precautions should be taken when using the method.
NOTE. For certain types of steel (e.g., free cutting steels), the standardized diagrams described in this Standard may not be applicable.
This Standard also provides for the determination of nonmetallic inclusions by image analysis technologies (see Annex D).
2 Principle
The method consists of comparing the observed field to the chart diagrams defined in this Standard and taking in consideration separately each type of inclusion. In the case of image analysis, fields will be rated according to the relationships given in Annex D. The chart pictures correspond to square fields of view, each with an area of 0.50 mm2, as obtained with a longitudinal plane-of-polish and as observed at 100 x. According to the shape and distribution of the inclusions, the standard diagrams are divided into five main groups, bearing the reference A, B, C, D and DS. These five groups represent the most commonly observed inclusion types and morphologies.
- Group A (sulfide type). highly malleable, individual grey particles with a wide range of aspect ratios (length/width) and generally rounded ends;
- Group B (aluminate type). numerous non-deformable, angular, low aspect ratio (generally < 3), black or bluish particles (at least three) aligned in the deformation direction;
- Group C (silicate type). highly malleable, individual black or dark grey particles with a wide range of aspect ratios (generally ≥ 3) and generally sharp ends; - Group D (globular oxide type). non-deformable, angular or circular, low aspect ratio (generally < 3), black or bluish, randomly distributed particles; - Group DS (single globular type). circular, or nearly circular, single particle with a diameter ≥ 13 μm.
Non-traditional inclusion types may also be rated based on their morphology compared to the above five groups and a statement about their chemical nature. As an example, globular sulfides would be rated as a D group and a descriptive subscript defined in the test report (e.g., Dsulf; Dcas would indicate globular calcium sulfides; DRES would indicate globular rare earth sulfides; DDup would indicate globular duplex inclusions, such as calcium sulfide surrounding an aluminate).
Types of precipitate such as borides, carbides, carbonitrides or nitrides may also be rated based on their morphology compared to the above five groups and a statement about their chemical nature as described in the previous subclause.
NOTE. Examination at a magnification greater than 100 x may be used to identify the nature of the non-traditional inclusions before performing the test.
Each main group on the chart consists of two subgroups, each made up of six diagrams representing increasing inclusion content. This division into subgroups is merely intended to give examples of different thicknesses of nonmetallic particles. The diagrams on the chart are given, by inclusion group, in Annex A.
These chart diagrams carry an index number, i, from 0.5 to 3, the numbers increasing with the inclusion or stringer lengths (Groups A, B, C) or by the number (Group D) or by the diameter (Group DS), as defined in Table 1, and by thickness, as defined in Table 2. For example, i =2 in the diagram A indicates that the shape of the inclusions observed under the microscope is in accordance with group A and that their distribution and quantity are in accordance with number 2.
Table 1 -- Rating limits (minimum values)
Table 2 -- Inclusion width parameters
3 Sampling
The shape of the inclusion depends to a large extent on the deg...

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