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GB/T 1040.1-2018 English PDF (GBT1040.1-2018)

GB/T 1040.1-2018 English PDF (GBT1040.1-2018)

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GB/T 1040.1-2018: Plastics -- Determination of tensile properties -- Part 1: General principles

GB/T 1040.1-2018
ICS 83.080.01
G 31
GB/T 1040.1-2018 / ISO 527-1:2012
Replacing GB/T 1040.1-2006
Plastics – Determination of Tensile Properties – Part 1:
General Principles
(ISO 527-1:2012, IDT)
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 6
4 Principle and Methods ... 10
5 Apparatus ... 11
6 Test Specimens ... 15
7 Number of Test Specimens ... 17
8 Conditioning ... 17
9 Procedure ... 17
10 Calculation and Expression of Results ... 20
11 Precision ... 24
12 Test Report ... 24
Annex A (Informative) Determination of Strain at Yield ... 26
Annex B (Informative) Extensometer Accuracy for the Determination of Poisson’s Ratio ... 29
Annex C (Normative) Calibration Requirements for the Determination of the Tensile Modulus ... 30
Bibliography ... 32
GB/T 1040 Plastics – Determination of Tensile Properties can be totally divided into the following 5 parts:
--- Part 1: General Principles;
--- Part 2: Test Conditions for Molding and Extrusion Plastics;
--- Part 3: Test Conditions for Films and Sheets;
--- Part 4: Test Conditions for Isotropic and Orthotropic Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composites;
--- Part 5: Test Conditions for Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composites. This Part is Part 1 of GB/T 1040.
This Part was drafted as per the rules specified in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Part replaced GB/T 1040.1-2006 Plastics - Determination of Tensile Properties - Part 1: General Principles. Compared with GB/T 1040.1-2006, the major changes of this Part are as follows:
--- Modify the Poisson's ratio;
--- Optimize the definition and method of computer-controlled tensile testing machine; --- The preferred gauge length of multi-purpose samples is increased from 50mm to 75mm, especially applicable to GB/T1040.2;
--- Modify the tensile nominal strain;
--- Add the calculation method of standard strain;
--- Delete the informative Annex A “Tensile Modulus and Related Values”; --- Add informative Annex A “Determination of Yield Strain”;
--- Add informative Annex B “Extensometer Accuracy for Determination of Poisson's Ratio”;
--- Add normative Annex C “Calibration Requirements for Determination of Tensile Modulus”.
This Part uses translation method to equivalently adopt ISO 527-1:2012 Plastics – Determination of Tensile Properties – Part 1: General Principles.
The Chinese documents that have consistent correspondence with the international documents cited in this Part are as follows:
--- GB/T 2918-2018 Plastics - Standard Atmospheres for Conditioning and Testing (ISO 291:2008, MOD)
--- GB/T 2941-2006 Rubber - General Procedures for Preparing and Conditioning Test Pieces for Physical Test Methods (ISO 23529:2004, IDT)
This Part was proposed by China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation. This Part shall be under the jurisdiction of General Methods and Products Subcommittee of National Technical Committee on Plastics of Standardization Administration of China (SAC/TC 15/SC 4).
Drafting organizations of this Part: National Synthetic Resin Quality Supervision and Inspection Center; Shandong Dawn Polymer Co., Ltd.; PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum and Chemical Industry; Guangdong Yuanrong New Material Co., Ltd.; CGN Juner New Materials Co., Ltd.; Chongqing Yuntianhua High-End New Materials Development Co., Ltd.; SINOPEC Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry; PetroChina Jilin Petrochemical Company; Chengde Jinjian Testing Instrument Co., Ltd.; Shenzhen Wance Testing Machine Co., Ltd.; Fujian Inspection and Research Institute for Product Quality; SINOPEC Beijing Yanshan Branch of Resin Application Research Institute; and Beijing C- Plast Chenguang Technology Co., Ltd.
Chief drafting staffs of this Part: Liu Lirong, Chen Minjian, Zhao Lei, Fan Jie, Chen Xin, Zhang Lei, Pu Xuetao, Zhe Dongmei, Liu Honglu, Ren Yufeng, Mou Xiufa, He Peng, Zhang Yaoyue, Chen Hongyuan, and Fang Wanpiao.
This Part replaced GB/T 1040.1-2006.
The historical editions replaced by this Part are as follows:
--- GB/T 1039-1979, GB/T 1039-1992;
--- GB/T 1040-1979, GB/T 1040-1992.
Plastics – Determination of Tensile Properties – Part 1:
General Principles
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 1040 specifies the general principles for determining the tensile properties of plastics and plastic composites under defined conditions. Several different types of test specimen are defined to suit different types of material which are detailed in subsequent parts of this Standard.
The methods are used to investigate the tensile behavior of the test specimens and for determining the tensile strength, tensile modulus and other aspects of the tensile stress/strain relationship under the conditions defined.
The methods are selectively suitable for use with the following materials: — rigid and semi-rigid (see 3.12 and 3.13, respectively) molding, extrusion and cast thermoplastic materials, including filled and reinforced compounds in addition to unfilled types; rigid and semi-rigid thermoplastics sheets and films;
— rigid and semi-rigid thermosetting molding materials, including filled and reinforced compounds; rigid and semi-rigid thermosetting sheets, including laminates; — fiber-reinforced thermosets and thermoplastic composites incorporating unidirectional or non-unidirectional reinforcements, such as mat, woven fabrics, woven rovings, chopped strands, combination and hybrid reinforcement, rovings and milled fibers; sheet made from pre-impregnated materials (prepregs),
— thermotropic liquid crystal polymers.
The methods are not normally suitable for use with rigid cellular materials, for which ISO 1926 is used, or for sandwich structures containing cellular materials.
2 Normative References
The following documents are essential to the application of this Document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this Document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) is applicable to this Document.
9.2 Dimensions of test specimen
Determine the dimensions of the test specimens in accordance with ISO 16012 or ISO 23529, as applicable.
Record the minimum and maximum values for width and thickness of each specimen at the center of the specimen and within 5 mm of each end of the gauge length, and make sure that they are within the tolerances indicated in the standard applicable for the given material. Use the means of the measured widths and thicknesses to calculate the cross-section of the test specimen.
For injection-molded test specimens, it is sufficient to determine the width and thickness within 5 mm of the center of the specimen.
In the case of injection-molded specimens, it is not necessary to measure the dimensions of each specimen. It is sufficient to measure one specimen from each lot to make sure that the dimensions correspond to the specimen type selected (see the relevant part of ISO 527). With multiple-cavity molds, ensure that the dimensions of the specimens do not differ by more than ±0.25 % between cavities.
For test specimens cut from sheet or film material, it is permissible to assume that the mean width of the central parallel portion of the die is equivalent to the corresponding width of the specimen. The adoption of such a procedure should be based on comparative measurements taken at periodic intervals.
For the purposes of this Part, the test specimen dimensions used for calculating tensile properties are measured at ambient temperature only. For the measurement of properties at other temperatures, therefore, the effects of thermal expansion are not taken into account. 9.3 Gripping
Place the test specimen in the grips, taking care to align the longitudinal axis of the test specimen with the axis of the testing machine. Tighten the grips evenly and firmly to avoid slippage of the test specimen and movement of the grips during the test. Gripping pressure shall not cause fracture or squashing of the test specimen (see NOTE 2).
NOTE 1: Stops can be used to facilitate alignment of the test specimen, especially in manual operation. For gripping test specimens within a temperature chamber, it is recommended to close initially only one grip and to tighten the second one only after the temperature of the test specimen is equilibrated, unless the machine is capable of continuously reducing thermal stress if it arises. NOTE 2: Fracture in the grips can happen, for example, when testing of specimens after heat aging. Squashing can occur in tests at elevated temperatures.
9.4 Prestresses

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