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GB 4943.1-2022 English PDF (GB4943.1-2022)

GB 4943.1-2022 English PDF (GB4943.1-2022)

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GB 4943.1-2022: Audio/video, information and communication technology equipment - Part 1: Safety requirements

GB 4943.1-2022
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 35.020
CCS L 09
Replacing GB 4943.1-2011, GB 8898-2011
Audio/video, information and communication technology
equipment - Part 1: Safety requirements
(IEC 62368-1:2018, MOD)
ISSUED ON: JULY 19, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: AUGUST 01, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 17
Introduction ... 24
0.1 Objective ... 24
0.2 Persons ... 24
0.2.1 General ... 24
0.2.2 Ordinary person ... 24
0.2.3 Instructed person ... 24
0.2.4 Skilled person ... 25
0.3 Model for pain and injury ... 25
0.4 Energy sources ... 26
0.5 Safeguards ... 27
0.5.1 General ... 27
0.5.2 Equipment safeguard ... 28
0.5.3 Installation safeguard ... 28
0.5.4 Personal safeguard ... 29
0.5.5 Behavioural safeguards ... 29
0.5.6 Safeguards during ordinary or instructed person service conditions ... 30 0.5.7 Equipment safeguards during skilled person service conditions ... 30 0.5.8 Examples of safeguard characteristics ... 31
0.6 Electrically-caused pain or injury (electric shock) ... 31
0.6.1 Models for electrically-caused pain or injury ... 31
0.6.2 Models for protection against electrically-caused pain or injury ... 32 0.7 Electrically-caused fire ... 33
0.7.1 Models for electrically-caused fire ... 33
0.7.2 Models for protection against electrically-caused fire ... 34
0.8 Injury caused by hazardous substances ... 35
0.9 Mechanically-caused injury ... 36
0.10 Thermally-caused injury (skin burn) ... 37
0.10.1 Models for thermally-caused injury ... 37
0.10.2 Models for protection against thermally-caused pain or injury ... 38 0.11 Radiation-caused injury ... 39
0.12 Description of relevant information ... 40
1 Scope ... 41
2 Normative references ... 43
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ... 54
3.1 Energy source abbreviations ... 54
3.2 Other abbreviations ... 55
3.3 Terms and definitions ... 56
3.3.1 Circuit terms ... 60
3.3.2 Enclosure terms ... 60
3.3.3 Equipment terms ... 61
3.3.4 Flammability terms ... 64
3.3.5 Electrical insulation ... 66
3.3.6 Miscellaneous ... 67
3.3.7 Operating and fault conditions ... 70
3.3.8 Persons ... 72
3.3.9 Potential ignition sources ... 72
3.3.10 Ratings ... 73
3.3.11 Safeguards ... 74
3.3.12 Spacings ... 77
3.3.13 Temperature controls ... 77
3.3.14 Voltages and currents ... 78
3.3.15 Classes of equipment with respect to protection from electric shock ... 79 3.3.16 Chemical terms ... 80
3.3.17 Batteries ... 81
3.3.18 FIW terms ... 82
3.3.19 Sound exposure ... 83
4 General requirements ... 84
4.1 General ... 84
4.1.1 Application of requirements and acceptance of materials, components and subassemblies ... 84
4.1.2 Use of components ... 84
4.1.3 Equipment design and construction ... 85
4.1.4 Equipment installation ... 85
4.1.5 Constructions and components not specifically covered ... 86
4.1.6 Orientation during transport and use ... 86
4.1.7 Choice of criteria ... 86
4.1.8 Liquids and liquid filled components (LFC) ... 86
4.1.9 Electrical measuring instruments ... 87
4.1.10 Temperature measurements ... 87
4.1.11 Steady state conditions ... 87
4.1.12 Hierarchy of safeguards ... 87
4.1.13 Examples mentioned in this document ... 88
4.1.14 Tests on parts or samples separate from the end-product ... 88
4.1.15 Markings and instructions ... 88
4.2 Energy source classifications ... 88
4.2.1 Class 1 energy source ... 88
4.2.2 Class 2 energy source ... 89
4.2.3 Class 3 energy source ... 89
4.2.4 Energy source classification by declaration ... 89
4.3 Protection against energy sources ... 89
4.3.1 General ... 89
4.3.2 Safeguards for protection of an ordinary person ... 89
4.3.3 Safeguards for protection of an instructed person ... 91
4.3.4 Safeguards for protection of a skilled person ... 92
4.3.5 Safeguards in a restricted access area ... 94
4.4 Safeguards ... 94
4.4.1 Equivalent materials or components ... 94
4.4.2 Composition of a safeguard ... 94
4.4.3 Safeguard robustness ... 94
4.4.4 Displacement of a safeguard by an insulating liquid ... 97
4.4.5 Safety interlocks ... 98
4.5 Explosion ... 98
4.5.1 General ... 98
4.5.2 Requirements ... 98
4.6 Fixing of conductors ... 99
4.6.1 Requirements ... 99
4.6.2 Compliance criteria ... 99
4.7 Equipment for direct insertion into mains socket-outlets ... 100
4.7.1 General ... 100
4.7.2 Requirements ... 100
4.7.3 Compliance criteria ... 100
4.8 Equipment containing coin / button cell batteries ... 100
4.8.1 General ... 100
4.8.2 Instructional safeguard ... 101
4.8.3 Construction ... 101
4.8.4 Tests ... 101
4.8.5 Compliance criteria ... 103
4.9 Likelihood of fire or shock due to entry of conductive objects ... 103 4.10 Components requirements ... 104
4.10.1 Disconnect device ... 104
4.10.2 Switches and relays ... 104
4.11 Overcurrent protective device ... 104
5 Electrically-caused injury ... 104
5.1 General ... 104
5.2 Classification and limits of electrical energy sources ... 104
5.2.1 Electrical energy source classifications ... 104
5.2.2 Electrical energy source ES1 and ES2 limits ... 105
5.3 Protection against electrical energy sources ... 111
5.3.1 General ... 111
5.3.2 Accessibility to electrical energy sources and safeguards ... 111 5.4 Insulation materials and requirements ... 115
5.4.1 General ... 115
5.4.2 Clearances ... 122
5.4.3 Creepage distances ... 134
5.4.4 Solid insulation ... 139
5.4.5 Antenna terminal insulation ... 151
5.4.6 Insulation of internal wire as a part of a supplementary safeguard ... 152 5.4.7 Tests for semiconductor components and for cemented joints ... 153 5.4.8 Humidity conditioning ... 153
5.4.9 Electric strength test ... 154
5.4.10 Safeguards against transient voltages from external circuits ... 158 5.4.11 Separation between external circuits and earth ... 160
5.4.12 Insulating liquid ... 162
5.5 Components as safeguards ... 163
5.5.1 General ... 163
5.5.2 Capacitors and RC units ... 164
5.5.3 Transformers ... 165
5.5.4 Optocouplers ... 166
5.5.5 Relays ... 166
5.5.6 Resistors ... 166
5.5.7 SPD ... 167
5.5.8 Insulation between the mains and an external circuit consisting of a coaxial cable ... 167
5.5.9 Safeguards for socket-outlets in outdoor equipment ... 168
5.6 Protective conductor ... 168
5.6.1 General ... 168
5.6.2 Requirements for protective conductors ... 169
5.6.3 Requirements for protective earthing conductors ... 170
5.6.4 Requirements for protective bonding conductors ... 171
5.6.5 Terminals for protective conductors ... 174
5.6.6 Resistance of the protective bonding system ... 175
5.6.7 Reliable connection of a protective earthing conductor ... 177
5.6.8 Functional earthing ... 178
5.7 Prospective touch voltage, touch current and protective conductor current ... 178 5.7.1 General ... 178
5.7.2 Measuring devices and networks ... 178
5.7.3 Equipment set-up, supply connections and earth connections ... 179 5.7.4 Unearthed accessible parts ... 179
5.7.5 Earthed accessible conductive parts ... 179
5.7.6 Requirements when touch current exceeds ES2 limits ... 180
5.7.7 Prospective touch voltage and touch current associated with external circuits ... 181 5.7.8 Summation of touch currents from external circuits ... 183
5.8 Backfeed safeguard in battery backed up supplies ... 185
6 Electrically-caused fire ... 186
6.1 General ... 186
6.2 Classification of power sources (PS) and potential ignition sources (PIS) ... 186 6.2.1 General ... 186
6.2.2 Power source circuit classifications ... 186
6.2.3 Classification of potential ignition sources ... 190
6.3 Safeguards against fire under normal operating conditions and abnormal operating conditions ... 192
6.3.1 Requirements ... 192
6.3.2 Compliance criteria ... 193
6.4 Safeguards against fire under single fault conditions ... 193
6.4.1 General ... 193
6.4.2 Reduction of the likelihood of ignition under single fault conditions in PS1 circuits ... 193
6.4.3 Reduction of the likelihood of ignition under single fault conditions in PS2 circuits and PS3 circuits ... 194
6.4.4 Control of fire spread in PS1 circuits ... 195
6.4.5 Control of fire spread in PS2 circuits ... 196
6.4.6 Control of fire spread in a PS3 circuit ... 197
6.4.7 Separation of combustible materials from a PIS ... 198
6.4.8 Fire enclosures and fire barriers ... 201
6.4.9 Flammability of an insulating liquid ... 208
6.5 Internal and external wiring ... 209
6.5.1 General requirements ... 209
6.5.2 Requirements for interconnection to building wiring ... 209
6.5.3 Internal wiring for socket-outlets ... 210
6.6 Safeguards against fire due to the connection of additional equipment ... 210 7 Injury caused by hazardous substances ... 210
7.1 General ... 210
7.2 Reduction of exposure to hazardous substances ... 210
7.3 Ozone exposure ... 211
7.4 Use of personal safeguards or personal protective equipment (PPE) ... 211 7.5 Use of instructional safeguards and instructions ... 211
7.6 Batteries and their protection circuits ... 211
8 Mechanically-caused injury ... 211
8.1 General ... 211
8.2 Mechanical energy source classifications ... 212
8.2.1 General classification ... 212
8.2.2 MS1 ... 214
8.2.3 MS2 ... 214
8.2.4 MS3 ... 214
8.3 Safeguards against mechanical energy sources ... 214
8.4 Safeguards against parts with sharp edges and corners ... 214
8.4.1 Requirements ... 214
8.4.2 Compliance criteria ... 215
8.5 Safeguards against moving parts ... 215
8.5.1 Requirements ... 215
8.5.2 Instructional safeguard requirements ... 217
8.5.3 Compliance criteria ... 217
8.5.4 Special categories of equipment containing moving parts ... 217
8.5.5 High pressure lamps ... 224
8.6 Stability of equipment ... 225
8.6.1 Requirements ... 225
8.6.2 Static stability ... 227
8.6.3 Relocation stability ... 228
8.6.4 Glass slide test ... 229
8.6.5 Horizontal force test and compliance criteria ... 229
8.7 Equipment mounted to a wall, ceiling or other structure ... 230
8.7.1 Requirements ... 230
8.7.2 Test methods ... 230
8.7.3 Compliance criteria ... 232
8.8 Handle strength ... 232
8.8.1 General ... 232
8.8.2 Test method ... 232
8.9 Wheels or casters attachment requirements ... 233
8.9.1 General ... 233
8.9.2 Test method ... 233
8.10 Carts, stands, and similar carriers ... 233
8.10.1 General ... 233
8.10.2 Marking and instructions ... 234
8.10.3 Cart, stand or carrier loading test and compliance criteria ... 235 8.10.4 Cart, stand or carrier impact test ... 235
8.10.5 Mechanical stability ... 236
8.10.6 Thermoplastic temperature stability ... 236
8.11 Mounting means for slide-rail mounted equipment ... 236
8.11.1 General ... 236
8.11.2 Requirements ... 237
8.11.3 Mechanical strength test ... 238
8.11.4 Compliance criteria ... 239
8.12 Telescoping or rod antennas ... 239
9 Thermal burn injury ... 239
9.1 General ... 239
9.2 Thermal energy source classifications ... 239
9.2.1 TS1 ... 239
9.2.2 TS2 ... 240
9.2.3 TS3 ... 240
9.3 Touch temperature limits ... 240
9.3.1 General requirements ... 240
9.3.2 Test method and compliance criteria ... 240
9.4 Safeguards against thermal energy sources ... 242
9.5 Requirements for safeguards ... 243
9.5.1 Equipment safeguard ... 243
9.5.2 Instructional safeguard ... 243
9.6 Requirements for wireless power transmitters ... 244
9.6.1 General ... 244
9.6.2 Specification of the foreign objects ... 244
9.6.3 Test method and compliance criteria ... 247
10 Radiation ... 248
10.1 General ... 248
10.2 Radiation energy source classifications ... 248
10.2.1 General classification ... 248
10.2.2 RS1 ... 250
10.2.3 RS2 ... 251
10.2.4 RS3 ... 251
10.3 Safeguards against laser radiation ... 251
10.4 Safeguards against optical radiation from lamps and lamp systems (including LED types) ... 252
10.4.1 General requirements ... 252
10.4.2 Requirements for enclosures ... 253
10.4.3 Instructional safeguard ... 253
10.4.4 Compliance criteria ... 255
10.5 Safeguards against X-radiation ... 256
10.5.1 Requirements ... 256
10.5.2 Compliance criteria ... 256
10.5.3 Test method ... 256
10.6 Safeguards against acoustic energy sources ... 257
10.6.1 General ... 257
10.6.2 Classification ... 258
10.6.3 Requirements for dose-based systems ... 259
10.6.4 Measurement methods ... 260
10.6.5 Protection of persons ... 261
10.6.6 Requirements for listening devices (headphones, earphones, etc.) ... 261 Annex A (Informative) Examples of equipment within the scope of this document 263 Annex B (Normative) Normal operating condition tests, abnormal operating condition tests and single fault condition tests ... 264
B.1 General ... 264
B.1.1 Test applicability ... 264
B.1.2 Type of test ... 264
B.1.3 Test samples ... 264
B.1.4 Compliance by inspection of relevant data ... 264
B.1.5 Temperature measurement conditions ... 265
B.2 Normal operating conditions ... 265
B.2.1 General ... 265
B.2.2 Supply frequency ... 266
B.2.3 Supply voltage ... 266
B.2.4 Normal operating voltages ... 266
B.2.5 Input test ... 266
B.2.6 Operating temperature measurement conditions ... 268
B.2.7 Battery charging and discharging under normal operating conditions ... 269 B.3 Simulated abnormal operating conditions ... 269
B.3.1 General ... 269
B.3.2 Covering of ventilation openings ... 270
B.3.3 DC mains polarity test ... 270
B.3.4 Setting of voltage selector ... 271
B.3.5 Maximum load at output terminals ... 271
B.3.6 Reverse battery polarity ... 271
B.3.7 Audio amplifier abnormal operating conditions ... 271
B.3.8 Compliance criteria during and after abnormal operating conditions ... 271 B.4 Simulated single fault conditions ... 271
B.4.1 General ... 271
B.4.2 Temperature controlling device ... 272
B.4.3 Motor tests ... 272
B.4.4 Functional insulation ... 272
B.4.5 Short-circuit and interruption of electrodes in tubes and semiconductors ... 273 B.4.6 Short-circuit or disconnection of passive components ... 273
B.4.7 Continuous operation of components ... 274
B.4.8 Compliance criteria during and after single fault conditions ... 274 B.4.9 Battery charging and discharging under single fault conditions ... 275 Annex C (Normative) UV radiation ... 276
C.1 Protection of materials in equipment from UV radiation ... 276
C.1.1 General ... 276
C.1.2 Requirements ... 276
C.1.3 Test method and compliance criteria ... 276
C.2 UV light conditioning test ... 277
C.2.1 Test apparatus ... 277
C.2.2 Mounting of test samples ... 277
C.2.3 Carbon-arc light-exposure test ... 277
C.2.4 Xenon-arc light-exposure test ... 277
Annex D (Normative) Test generators ... 278
D.1 Impulse test generators ... 278
D.2 Antenna interface test generator ... 279
D.3 Electronic pulse generator ... 279
Annex E (Normative) Test conditions for equipment containing audio amplifiers .. 281 E.1 Electrical energy source classification for audio signals ... 281
E.2 Audio amplifier normal operating conditions ... 281
E.3 Audio amplifier abnormal operating conditions ... 283
Annex F (Normative) Equipment markings, instructions, and instructional safeguards ... 284
F.1 General ... 284
F.2 Letter symbols and graphical symbols ... 284
F.2.1 Letter symbols ... 284
F.2.2 Graphical symbols ... 284
F.2.3 Compliance criteria ... 285
F.3 Equipment markings ... 285
F.3.1 Equipment marking locations ... 285
F.3.2 Equipment identification markings ... 286
F.3.3 Equipment rating markings ... 286
F.3.4 Voltage setting device ... 289
F.3.5 Markings on terminals and operating devices ... 289
F.3.6 Equipment markings related to equipment classification ... 291
F.3.7 Equipment IP rating marking ... 292
F.3.8 External power supply output marking ... 292
F.3.9 Durability, legibility and permanence of markings ... 292
F.3.10 Test for the permanence of markings ... 293
F.4 Instructions... 293
F.5 Instructional safeguards ... 295
Annex G (Normative) Components ... 298
G.1 Switches ... 298
G.1.1 General ... 298
G.1.2 Requirements ... 298
G.1.3 Test method and compliance criteria ... 299
G.2 Relays... 299
G.2.1 Requirements ... 299
G.2.2 Overload test ... 301
G.2.3 Relay controlling connectors supplying power to other equipment ... 301 G.2.4 Test method and compliance criteria ... 301
G.3 Protective devices ... 301
G.3.1 Thermal cut-offs ... 301
G.3.2 Thermal links ... 303
G.3.3 PTC thermistors ... 304
G.3.4 Overcurrent protective devices ... 305
G.3.5 Safeguard components not mentioned in G.3.1 to G.3.4 ... 305
G.4 Connectors ... 305
G.4.1 Clearance and creepage distance requirements ... 305
G.4.2 Mains connectors ... 306
G.4.3 Connectors other than mains connectors ... 306
G.5 Wound components ... 307
G.5.1 Wire insulation in wound components ... 307
G.5.2 Endurance test ... 307
G.5.3 Transformers ... 309
G.5.4 Motors ... 320
G.6 Wire insulation ... 326
G.6.1 General ... 326
G.6.2 Enamelled winding wire insulation ... 327
G.7 Mains supply cords ... 327
G.7.1 General ... 327
G.7.2 Cross sectional area ... 329
G.7.3 Cord anchorages and strain relief for non-detachable power supply cords ... 330 G.7.4 Cord entry ... 332
G.7.5 Non-detachable cord bend protection ... 332
G.7.6 Supply wiring space ... 333
G.8 Varistors ... 335
G.8.1 General ... 335
G.8.2 Safeguards against fire ... 336
G.9 IC current limiters ... 338
G.9.1 Requirements ... 338
G.9.2 Test program ... 339
G.9.3 Compliance criteria ... 340
G.10 Resistors ... 340
G.10.1 General ... 340
G.10.2 Conditioning ... 340
G.10.3 Resistor test ... 341
G.10.4 Voltage surge test ... 341
G.10.5 Impulse test ... 341
G.10.6 Overload test ... 341
G.11 Capacitors and RC units ... 342
G.11.1 General ... 342
G.11.2 Conditioning of capacitors and RC units ... 342
G.11.3 Rules for selecting capacitors ... 342
G.12 Optocouplers ... 343
G.13 Printed boards ... 343
G.13.1 General ... 343
G.13.2 Uncoated printed boards ... 344
G.13.3 Coated printed boards ... 344
G.13.4 Insulation between conductors on the same inner surface of printed board ... 346 G.13.5 Insulation between conductors on different surfaces of printed board ... 346 G.13.6 Tests on coated printed boards ... 346
G.14 Coatings on component terminals ... 349
G.14.1 Requirements ... 349
G.14.2 Test method and compliance criteria ... 349
G.15 Pressurized liquid filled ...

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