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GB 38031-2020 English PDF (GB38031-2020)

GB 38031-2020 English PDF (GB38031-2020)

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GB 38031-2020: Electric vehicles traction battery safety requirements

This Standard specifies the safety requirements and test methods for secondary cells, battery packs or systems of traction battery (hereinafter referred to as battery) for electric vehicles. This Standard is applicable to rechargeable energy storage devices for electric vehicles, such as: li-ion battery and nickel-metal hydride battery.
GB 38031-2020
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.080
T 47
Replacing GB/T 31485-2015, GB/T 31467.3-2015
Electric Vehicles Traction Battery Safety requirements
ISSUED ON: MAY 12, 2020
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 1, 2021
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 6
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative References ... 7
3 Terms and Definitions ... 7
4 Abbreviations and Symbols ... 10
4.1 Abbreviations ... 10
4.2 Symbols ... 10
5 Safety Requirements ... 10
5.1 Safety Requirements of Secondary Cell ... 10
5.2 Safety Requirements of Battery Pack or System ... 11
6 Test Conditions ... 12
6.1 General Conditions ... 12
6.2 Accuracy of Measuring Instruments and Meters ... 14
6.3 Test Process Error ... 14
6.4 Data Recording and Recording Interval ... 14
7 Test Preparation ... 14
7.1 Test preparation of secondary cell ... 14
7.2 Test Preparation of Battery Pack or System ... 15
8 Test Methods ... 16
8.1 Safety Test Method for Secondary Cell ... 16
8.2 Safety Test Method for Battery Pack or System ... 19
9 Implementation Date ... 36
Appendix A (Informative) Typical Structure of Battery Pack or System ... 38 Appendix B (Normative) Insulation Resistance Test Method of Battery Pack or System ... 41
Appendix C (Normative) Thermal Propagation Occupant Protection Analysis and Verification Report ... 44
Bibliography ... 50
Electric Vehicles Traction Battery Safety
Requirements
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the safety requirements and test methods for secondary cells, battery packs or systems of traction battery (hereinafter referred to as battery) for electric vehicles.
This Standard is applicable to rechargeable energy storage devices for electric vehicles, such as: li-ion battery and nickel-metal hydride battery.
2 Normative References
The following documents are indispensable to the application of this document. In terms of references with a specified date, only versions with a specified date are applicable to this document. In terms of references without a specified date, the latest version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document. GB/T 2423.4 Environmental Testing for Electric and Electronic Products - Part 2: Test Method - Test Db: Damp Heat, Cyclic (12 h + 12 h cycle)
GB/T 2423.17 Environmental Testing for Electric and Electronic Products - Part 2: Test Method - Test Ka: Salt Mist
GB/T 2423.43 Environmental Testing for Electric and Electronic Products - Part 2: Test Methods - Mounting of Specimens for Vibration Impact and Similar Dynamic Tests GB/T 2423.56 Environmental Testing - Part 2: Test Methods - Test Fh: Vibration, Broadband Random and Guidance
GB/T 4208-2017 Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosure (IP code)
GB/T 19596 Terminology of Electric Vehicles
GB/T 28046.4-2011 Road Vehicles - Environmental Conditions and Testing for Electrical and Electronic Equipment - Part 4: Climatic Loads
3 Terms and Definitions
What is defined in GB/T 19596, and the following terms and definitions are applicable to this document.
NOTE: rated capacity is generally expressed in (Ah) or (mAh).
3.8 Practical Capacity
Practical capacity refers to the capacity value released from fully charged secondary cell, module, battery pack or system under the conditions specified by the manufacturer. 3.9 State-of-charge
State-of-charge refers to the percentage of capacity in the current secondary cell, module, battery pack or system that can be released in accordance with the discharge conditions specified by the manufacturer to the practical capacity.
3.10 Explosion
Explosion refers to a sudden release of sufficient energy, which generates pressure waves or sprays, and might cause structural or physical damage to the surrounding area.
3.11 Fire
Fire refers to continuous combustion of secondary cell, module, battery pack or any part of the system (the duration of single flame is greater than 1 s). Sparks and electric arcs do not belong to combustion.
3.12 Housing Crack
Housing crack refers to mechanical damage to secondary cell, module, battery pack or system housing due to internal and external factors, which can result in exposure or spillage of internal substances.
3.13 Leakage
Leakage refers to the phenomenon that visible substances leak from secondary cell, module, battery pack or system to the outside of the test object.
3.14 Thermal Runaway
Thermal runaway refers to the phenomenon of uncontrollable rise in battery temperature caused by exothermic chain reaction of secondary cell.
3.15 Thermal Propagation
Thermal propagation refers to the phenomenon of successive thermal runaway of the remaining secondary cells caused by thermal runaway of one secondary cell in the battery pack or system.
3.16 End-of-charge Voltage
5.1.5 In accordance with 8.1.6, conduct temperature cycle test on secondary cell: there shall be no fire or explosion.
5.1.6 In accordance with 8.1.7, conduct extrusion test on secondary cell: there shall be no fire or explosion.
5.2 Safety Requirements of Battery Pack or System
5.2.1 In accordance with 8.2.1, conduct vibration test on battery pack or system: there shall be no phenomenon of leakage, housing crack, fire or explosion. In addition, abnormal termination conditions shall not be triggered. After the test, the insulation resistance shall be not less than 100 ???/V.
5.2.2 In accordance with 8.2.2, conduct mechanical impact test on battery pack or system: there shall be no phenomenon of leakage, housing crack, fire or explosion. After the test, the insulation resistance shall be not less than 100 ???/V. 5.2.3 In accordance with 8.2.3, conduct simulated collision test on battery pack or system: there shall be no phenomenon of leakage, housing crack, fire or explosion. After the test, the insulation resistance shall be not less than 100 ???/V. 5.2.4 In accordance with 8.2.4, conduct extrusion test on battery pack or system: there shall be no fire or explosion.
5.2.5 In accordance with 8.2.5, conduct damp heat cycle test on battery pack or system: there shall be no phenomenon of leakage, housing crack, fire or explosion. Within 30 min after the test, the insulation resistance shall be not less than 100 ???/V. 5.2.6 In accordance with 8.2.6, conduct water immersion test on battery pack or system: one of the following requirements shall be satisfies:
a) Comply with Mode 1: there shall be no fire or explosion;
b) Comply with Mode 2: after the test, IPX7 requirements must be satisfied: there shall be no phenomenon of leakage, housing crack, fire or explosion. After the test, the insulation resistance shall be not less than 100 ???/V.
5.2.7 In accordance with 8.2.7, conduct thermal stability test on battery pack or system, excluding nickel-metal hydride battery or the system. It includes:
a) In accordance with 8.2.7.1, conduct external combustion test: there shall be no explosion;
b) In accordance with 8.2.7.2, conduct thermal propagation occupant protection analysis and verification. 5 min before a danger is caused in the passenger compartment due to thermal propagation, as a result of thermal runaway of a single battery, the battery pack or system shall provide a thermal event independently, battery module may be adopted for testing, and the safety requirements shall still comply with 5.1.
6.1.3 In terms of battery pack or system covered by car body and forms a battery pack box, it may be tested along with the box or the car body.
6.1.4 Battery pack or system test delivery needs to include necessary operating documents, as well as interface components required to connect with the test equipment, such as: connectors and plugs, including cooling system interfaces. The typical structure of battery pack or system is shown in Appendix A. The manufacturer needs to provide safe operating limits for the battery pack or system.
6.1.5 Before all the tests, and after some tests, battery pack or system need to be tested for insulation resistance. The test position is: between the two terminals and the electric platform. It is required that the measured insulation resistance value divided by the maximum working voltage of the battery pack or system is not less than 100 ???/V. The specific test methods are shown in Appendix B.
6.1.6 If due to some reasons (for example: size or mass), battery pack or system is not suitable for some tests, then, after reaching a consensus through negotiation, the manufacturer and testing institution may use the subsystem of the battery pack or system as the test object for all or some of the tests. However, the subsystem, which serves as the test object, shall contain all the parts (for example: connecting parts or protective parts, etc.) related to the requirements of the vehicle.
6.1.7 The method of adjusting SOC to n% of test target value: in accordance with the charging mode provided by the manufacturer, fully charge the battery pack or system; place it still for 1 h. Then, with 1 I3, at a constant current, discharge it for a duration of T. T is obtained through the calculation in accordance with Formula (1). Or, adopt the method provided by the manufacturer to adjust SOC. After each SOC adjustment, before a new test starts, the test object shall be placed still for 30 min. Where,
T---discharging time, expressed in (h);
n---percentage value of test target value.
6.1.8 The charging and discharging rate, method and cut-off conditions during the test are provided by the manufacturer.
6.1.9 The rated capacity of secondary cell, battery pack or system shall comply with the product technical conditions provided by the manufacturer.
Firstly, at the current specified by the manufacturer and not less than 1 I3, discharge secondary cell to the discharge cut-off voltage specified by the manufacturer in the technical conditions. Place it still for 1 h (or, the shelving time provided by the manufacturer and not more than 1 h). Then, in accordance with the charging method provided by the manufacturer, charge the secondary cell. After charging, place it still for 1 h (or, the shelving time provided by the manufacturer and not more than 1 h). If the manufacturer does not provide charging method, then, the testing institution and the manufacturer shall negotiate and determine an appropriate charging method, or charge in accordance with the following methods:
At a constant current specified by the manufacturer and not less than 1 I3, charge the secondary cell, till it reaches the charge cut-off voltage specified by the manufacturer in the technical conditions, then, transfer to constant-voltage charging, till the charging current drops to 0.05 I1, then, stop charging. After charging, place it still for 1 h (or, the shelving time provided by the manufacturer and not more than 1 h).
7.1.2 Pre-treatment
7.1.2.1 Before the official test starts, secondary cell needs to undergo a pre-treatment cycle first, so as to ensure that the performance of the test object is activated and stable. Proceed as follows:
a) In accordance with 7.1.1, conduct standard charging on the secondary cell; b) At a current specified by the manufacturer and not less than 1 I3, discharge to the discharge cut-off conditions specified by the manufacturer;
c) Place it still for 30 min, or the time specified by the manufacturer; d) Repeat a) ~ c) for not more than 5 times.
7.1.2.2 If discharging capacity change of the secondary cell in consecutive two times is not higher than 3% of the rated capacity, then, it is believed that the secondary cell has completed the pre-treatment, and the pre-treatment cycle can be terminated. 7.2 Test Preparation of Battery Pack or System
7.2.1 Confirmation of working status
Before the official test starts, the electronic components or BCU of the battery pack or system shall be in normal working status.
7.2.2 Pre-treatment
7.2.2.1 Before the official test starts, battery pack or system needs to undergo a pre- treatment cycle first, so as to ensure that the performance of the test object is activated and stable. Proceed as follows:
8.1.3 Over-charge
8.1.3.1 Test object is secondary cell.
8.1.3.2 In accordance with 7.1.1, charge the test object.
8.1.3.3 With a constant current specified by the manufacturer and not less than 1 I3, charge to 1.1 times of the charge cut-off voltage specified by the manufacturer or 115% SOC, then, stop charging.
8.1.3.4 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of test, observe for 1 h.
8.1.4 External short-circuit
8.1.4.1 Test object is secondary cell.
8.1.4.2 In accordance with 7.1.1, charge the test object.
8.1.4.3 Externally short-circuit the positive and negative terminals of the test object for 10 min: the electrical resistance of the external circuit shall be less than 5 m???. 8.1.4.4 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of test, observe for 1 h.
8.1.5 Heating
8.1.5.1 Test object is secondary cell.
8.1.5.2 In accordance with 7.1.1, charge the test object.
8.1.5.3 Place the test object into a temperature box; use the following conditions for heating:
a) Li-ion secondary cell: at the rate of 5 ??C/min, raise the temperature box from the ambient temperature of test to 130 ??C ?? 2 ??C; maintain this temperature for 30 min, then, stop heating;
b) Nickel-metal hydride battery: at the rate of 5 ??C/min, raise the temperature box from the ambient temperature of test to 85 ??C ?? 2 ??C; maintain this temperature for 2 h, then, stop heating.
8.1.5.4 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of test, observe for 1 h.
8.1.6 Temperature cycle
8.1.6.1 Test object is secondary cell.
8.1.7.3 In accordance with the following conditions, conduct the test:
a) Extrusion direction: apply pressure perpendicular to the direction of the secondary cell plate, or, in the same direction where the secondary cell is most easily extruded in the vehicle layout;
b) Form of extrusion plate: a half-cylinder with a radius of 75 mm; the length (L) of the half-cylinder is larger than the size of the extruded secondary cell (as it is shown in Figure 6);
c) Extrusion rate: not more than 2 mm/s;
d) Extrusion degree: when the voltage reaches 0 V, or the deformation reaches 15%, or the extrusion force reaches 100 kN or 1,000 times of the weight of the test object, stop the extrusion;
e) Maintain for 10 min.
8.1.7.4 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of test, observe for 1 h.
8.2 Safety Test Method for Battery Pack or System
8.2.1 Vibration
8.2.1.1 Test object is battery pack or system.
8.2.1.2 In order to protect the safety of test operators and laboratories, the manufacturer shall provide voltage sharpness limits as abnormal termination conditions.
8.2.1.3 Before the test starts, adjust the SOC of the test object to not lower than 50% of the normal SOC working range specified by the manufacturer.
8.2.1.4 In accordance with the installation location of the test object and the requirements of GB/T 2423.43, install the test object on the vibration table. Respectively apply random and constant-frequency vibration loads in each direction. The sequence of loading should be: z-axis random, z-axis constant-frequency, y-axis random, y-axis constant-frequency, x-axis random, x-axis constant-frequency (the driving direction is x-axis direction, and the other horizontal direction perpendicular to the driving direction is y-axis direction). The testing institution may also, on its own, choose the sequence, so as to shorten the conversion time. The test process shall comply with GB/T 2423.56.
8.2.1.5 In terms of battery packs or systems mounted on vehicles other than Type-M1 and Type-N1, vibration test parameters shall comply with Table 2 and Figure 2. When the test object has multiple installation directions (x/y/z), conduct the test in accordance X---time, h; c---recommended temperature and humidity value;
f---one cycle.
Figure 8 (continued from previous page)
8.2.6 Water immersion
8.2.6.1 Test object is battery pack or system that passes the vibration test in 8.2.1. 8.2.6.2 In accordance with the finished vehicle connection mode, properly connect components (such as: wiring harness and connectors, etc.) of the test object. Select one of the following modes for testing:
a) Mode 1: in the actual vehicle assembly direction, place the test object in 3.5% (mass fraction) sodium chloride solution for 2 h; the water depth shall be sufficient to submerge the test object;
b) Mode 2: in accordance with the method and the flow described in 14.2.7 in GB/T 4208-2017 to test the test object. In accordance with the installation state specified by the manufacturer, completely immerse the test object in water. In terms of test object whose height is less than 850 mm, the lowest power shall be 1,000 mm below the water surface. In terms of test object whose height equals to, or is more than 850 mm, the highest point shall be 150 mm below the water surface. The test duration is 30 min. The temperature difference between the water temperature and the test object is not more than 5 ??C.
8.2.6.3 Take the battery pack out of the water. At the ambient temperature of test, place it still and observe for 2 h.
8.2.7 Thermal stability
8.2.7.1 External combustion
8.2.7.1.1 Test object is battery pack or system. The body structure that protects the battery pack or system can participate in the combustion test.
8.2.7.1.2 The ambient temperature of test is above 0 ??C. The wind speed is not more than 2.5 km/h.
8.2.7.1.3 During the test, the size of the flat plate containing gasoline exceeds the horizontal protection size of the test object by 20 cm, and does not exceed 50 cm. The height of the flat plate is not higher than 8 cm above the gasoline surface. The test object shall be placed in the center. The distance between the gasoline liquid level and the bottom of the test object is set to 50 cm, or, the ground clearance of the bottom surface of the test object when the vehicle is under the no-load state. Fill the bottom of the flat plate with water. The schematic diagram of the external combustion is shown 8.2.10.3 Test environment: the air pressure condition is 61.2 kPa (air pressure condition when the simulated altitude is 4,000 m); the temperature is the ambient temperature of test.
8.2.10.4 Maintain the test environment in 8.2.10.3. Place it still for 5 h. 8.2.10.5 After the resting time is completed, maintain the test environment in 8.2.10.3. With a current specified by the manufacturer and not less than 1 I3, discharge the test object to the discharge cut-off conditions specified by the manufacturer. 8.2.10.6 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of test, observe for 2 h.
8.2.11 Over-temperature protection
8.2.11.1 Test object is battery system.
8.2.11.2 In order to protect the safety of test operators and laboratories, the manufacturer shall provide upper limit parameters as abnormal termination conditions. 8.2.11.3 When the test starts, all protection equipment that affects the functions of the test object and is related to the test result shall be in normal operation, except for the cooling system.
8.2.11.4 The test object shall be continuously cha...

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