GB 3565.2-2022 English PDF (GB3565.2-2022)
GB 3565.2-2022 English PDF (GB3565.2-2022)
GB 3565.2-2022: Safety requirements for bicycles -- Part 2: Requirements for city and trekking, young adult, mountain and racing bicycles
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
CCS Y 14
Replacing GB 3565-2005
Security requirements for bicycles - Part 2: Requirements
for city and trekking, young adult, mountain and racing
(ISO 4210-2:2015, Cycles - Security requirements for bicycles - Part 2: Requirements for city and trekking, young adult, mountain and racing bicycles, MOD)
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 29, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: OCTOBER 01, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
Introduction ... 7
1 Scope ... 9
2 Normative references ... 10
3 Terms and definitions ... 12
4 Requirements ... 12
4.1 Hazardous substances ... 12
4.2 Sharp edges ... 12
4.3 Security and strength of security-related fasteners ... 12
4.4 Crack inspection method ... 13
4.5 Protrusions ... 13
4.6 Brakes ... 13
4.7 Handlebar ... 19
4.8 Frame ... 24
4.9 Front fork ... 26
4.10 Wheels and wheel/tyre assembly ... 28
4.11 Rims, tyres and tubes ... 30
4.12 Front mudguard ... 32
4.13 Pedal and pedal/crank drive systems ... 32
4.14 Drive chain and drive belt ... 36
4.15 Chain-wheel and belt-drive protective device ... 36
4.16 Saddles and seat-posts... 39
4.17 Spoke protector ... 41
4.18 Luggage carriers ... 41
4.19 Road test of the fully assembled bicycle ... 42
4.20 Lighting systems and reflectors ... 42
4.21 Warning device ... 43
5 Manufacturer's instructions ... 44
6 Marks ... 46
6.1 Location and content ... 46
6.2 Durability test ... 47
Annex A (informative) Comparison on structural numbers between this document and ISO 4210-2:2015 ... 48
Annex B (informative) Technical differences between this document and ISO4210- 2:2015 and their reasons ... 51
Security requirements for bicycles - Part 2: Requirements
for city and trekking, young adult, mountain and racing
This document specifies the security and performance requirements for the design, assembly and testing of bicycles and their components with various saddle heights (see Table 1). It also provides technical guidelines for manufacturers to prepare operating instructions for bicycle use and maintenance.
This document applies to youth bicycles with a maximum saddle height greater than or equal to 635 mm and less than 750 mm, city and trekking bicycles, mountain bicycles and racing bicycles with a maximum saddle height greater than or equal to 635 mm, including folding bicycles (see Table 1 and Figure 1) and shared bicycles. This document does not apply to special types of bicycles, such as: delivery bicycles, recumbent bicycles, tandem bicycles, small-wheel competition bicycles and bicycles designed and assembled for riding in demanding conditions, for example, approved bicycles for competition, performance or stunt categories.
NOTE: For bicycles with a maximum saddle height less than or equal to 435 mm, see GB 6675.2. For bicycles with a maximum saddle height greater than 435 mm and less than 635 mm, see GB 14746.
ISO 14878, Cycles - Audible warning devices -Technical specifications and test methods
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T 3565.1- 2022 apply.
4.1 Hazardous substances
Any parts that are in close contact with the rider, such as: paint and polymer coating on the frame, saddle surface, handlebars and brake levers shall comply with the migratory elements (other toy materials) and plasticization specified in GB 6675.1 limit requirements for pharmaceutical products (all products including products that can be placed in the mouth).
The limits of migrating elements in parts are measured according to the method described in GB 6675.4. The plasticizer content is measured according to the method described in GB/T 22048.
4.2 Sharp edges
During normal riding, transportation and maintenance, there shall be no exposed sharp edges anywhere that the rider's hands, legs, etc. may touch. Such as burrs, sharp corners, curling or similar processing.
NOTE: See GB/T 19096-2003.
4.3 Security and strength of security-related fasteners
4.3.1 Security of bolts
Any screws used in the assembly of suspension systems, brackets attached to electric generators, brake mechanisms and mudguards to the frame or fork, and the saddle to the seat-post shall be provided with suitable locking devices, e.g., lock-washers, lock- nuts, thread locking compound, or stiff nuts. Fasteners used to assemble hub and disc brakes shall have heat-resistant locking devices.
NOTE 1: The bolts used to attach the hub generator are not included.
NOTE 2: For example, the mechanical and physical properties of bolts are specified by GB/T 3098.1.
The brake skin shall not contain asbestos materials. Asbestos content is measured according to the method described in GB/T 23263.
4.6.2 Hand-operated brakes
126.96.36.199 Brake lever position
The brake levers of the front and rear brakes shall be installed correctly. The left brake lever operates the rear brake, and the right brake lever operates the front brake. The manufacturer shall state this in the instructions [see Chapter 5 b)].
188.8.131.52 Brake lever grip dimensions
Different types of brake handles have different distances between the handlebar and the outer surface of the brake handle. Specific requirements for each type of product are as follows.
a) Type A or B brake lever
As shown in Figure 2a) and Figure 2b), the length of contact between the rider's fingers and the handlebars or other coverings is not less than 40 mm. Measuring the distance d between the handlebar and the outer surface of the brake handle shall meet the following requirements:
- For bicycles with a minimum saddle height of 635 mm or higher, d shall not be greater than 90 mm;
- For bicycles with a minimum saddle height of 635 mm or less, d shall not be greater than 75 mm.
Measure according to the method described in 4.1.1 of GB/T 3565.4-2022. The brake handle shall meet the above requirements within its adjustment range.
NOTE: See Chapter 5 c) for minimum saddle height.
b) Type C brake lever
It shall be possible to fit the dimension gauge shown in GB/T 3565.4-2022, Figure 3 over the brake lever (or a secondary brake lever) and the handlebar grip or any other covering in at least one position between points B and C indicated in Figure 2 c), without causing any movement of the brake lever towards the handlebar. The dimension d shall not exceed 100 mm.
Measure according to the method described in 4.1.2 of GB/T 3565.4-2022. The brake handle shall meet the above requirements within its adjustment range.
4.6.5 Brake adjustment
Each brake shall be equipped with a manual or automatic adjustment mechanism. Each brake shall be able to be adjusted to an effective operating position with or without tools and used to the extent recommended by the manufacturer that the brake pads require replacement due to wear. When the brakes are properly adjusted, the brake pads shall not touch anything other than the intended braking surface.
For a bicycle equipped with ordinary front and rear brakes, when the handlebar angle is 60??, the brake pads shall not collide with the wheel rim. When the handlebars return to their neutral position, the front and rear stays shall neither bend nor twist. 4.6.6 Handbrake braking system - Strength test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 4.4 of GB/T 3565.4-2022. The braking system and any of its components shall not break.
4.6.7 Footbrake braking system - Strength test
If a footbrake braking system is installed, braking shall be achieved by the rider's feet exerting force on the pedals in a direction opposite to the driving direction. The braking mechanism shall be independent and effective, independent of the position or adjustment of the drive gear. The difference between the drive and brake positions of the crank shall not be greater than 60??.
During the test, a pedal force of not less than 250 N shall be applied to each position of the crank. The force applied at each position shall be maintained for 1 min. 184.108.40.206 Strength test
When tested according to the method described in 4.5 of GB/T 3565.4-2022, the braking system and any of its components shall not fail.
4.6.8 Braking performance
There are two test methods to determine braking performance. Experience shows that both methods are suitable and can be applied. One test method is a road test. The braking distance is directly measured through the test, which directly proves the reliability of the brake under test. Another testing method is testing by testing machine. The braking force is measured through experiments. Then calculate the value of braking performance. The reliable performance of the brakes is determined by linear measurements. Finally, a simple road test is required to test its smooth, safe and stopping characteristics.
of GB/T 3565.4-2022.
b) For the testing machine test, the characteristics of smooth and safe parking are defined by compliance with the linearity requirements specified in GB/T 3565.4- 2022, 220.127.116.11 and the simple track test described in GB/T 3565.4-2022, 18.104.22.168 item h).
22.214.171.124 Ratio between wet and dry braking performance
For city and trekking, young adult, and mountain bicycles, in order to ensure the security of wet and dry braking, the ratio of wet to dry braking performance shall be greater than 4:10.
The method for calculating this ratio, road test is given by 126.96.36.199 c) in GB/T 3565.4- 2022. The testing machine test is given by 188.8.131.52 g) in GB/T 3565.4-2022. NOTE: 184.108.40.206 is not applicable to racing bicycles.
4.6.9 Brake heat resistance test
This test applies to all disc brakes and hub brakes. However, for rim brakes, it is only applicable to rim brakes whose brake skin is known or suspected to be made of or containing thermoplastic materials.
Each brake on a bicycle shall be tested individually. If the front and rear brakes are identical, only one brake needs to be tested.
220.127.116.11 Heat resistance test
Throughout the test described in 4.7 of GB/T 3565.4-2022, the brake handle and the handlebar handle shall not touch, the brake holding force shall not be greater than 180N, and the braking force shall be in the range of 60N~115N.
After passing the test described in 4.7 of GB/T 3565.4-2022, cool to room temperature. The braking performance of the brake shall reach at least 60% of the braking performance recorded in the maximum brake holding force used in 1) and 2) performance test of 18.104.22.168c) in GB/T 3565.4-2022.
4.7.1 Dimensions of handlebar
The total width of the handlebar shall be between 350mm ~ 1000mm. Adjust the handlebars to their highest normal riding position according to the manufacturer's instructions. Adjust the saddle to the lowest normal riding position [see Chapter 5 c)]. b) Test requirements for the second stage: Conduct the test according to the method described in 4.4.2 of GB/T 3565.5-2022. There shall be no visible cracks or breaks in the stem.
22.214.171.124 Handlebar to handlebar stem - Fixing strength test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 4.5 of GB/T 3565.5-2022. The handlebar shall not move relative to the stem.
NOTE: This requirement does not apply to racing cars or bicycles equipped with drop handlebars. 126.96.36.199 Handlebar stem to front fork stem - Torque reliability test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 4.6 of GB/T 3565.5-2022. The stem shall not move relative to the fork stem.
188.8.131.52 Handlebar end to handlebar - Torque reliability test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 4.7 of GB/T 3565.5-2022. The handlebar ends shall not move relative to the handlebar.
184.108.40.206 Extended handlebar to handle - Torque reliability test
When the handlebar is suitable for mounting an extension bar, the extension handlebar/handlebar/handlebar tube assembly shall withstand the following security tests.
Carry out the test according to the method described in 4.8 of GB/T 3565.5-2022. There shall be no relative movement at the connection between the extension handlebar and the handlebar, and between the handlebar and the handlebar stem.
4.7.7 Handlebar and handlebar stem assembly - Fatigue test
When testing the handlebar, the handlebar shall be mounted on the handlebar stem for testing. However, when testing the stem, it is allowed to use a solid steel rod in place of the handlebar and handlebar end, as long as its size is suitable for the stem. If only the stem is subjected to fatigue testing, the stem manufacturer shall specify the type and size of the appropriate stem. The test shall be the most severe combination. The same component is tested in two stages.
220.127.116.11 Phase 1 and 2 test requirements
Carry out the test according to the method described in 4.9.1 or 4.9.2 of GB/T 3565.5- 2022. There shall be no visible cracks or breaks in any part of the handlebar and stem assembly. No bolts shall be damaged.
4.9 Front fork
4.9.2, 4.9.4, 4.9.5 and 4.9.6 apply to all types of front forks.
In the strength tests of 4.9.4, 4.9.5, 4.9.6 and 4.9.7, the shock-absorbing front fork shall be tested in its natural state without compression.
4.9.2 Axles and wheel alignment
When positioning the axle inside the fork using the fork tab notch or other means, the front wheel shall remain centered in the fork when the axle or axle stop is against the top of the fork tab notch.
The front fork and front wheel shall also comply with the requirements of 4.10.4 and 4.10.5.
4.9.3 Shock-absorbing front fork - Tyre clearance test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 5.1 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. The tyre and front fork crown shall not touch. The fork components shall also not come apart.
4.9.4 Front fork - Tensile test
18.104.22.168 Shock absorbing front fork
When testing according to the method described in 5.2.1 of GB/T 3565.6-2022, any part of the front fork shall not detach or loosen.
22.214.171.124 Rigid non-welded front fork
When testing according to the method described in 5.2.2 of GB/T 3565.6-2022, any part of the front fork shall not be separated or loose.
4.9.5 Front fork - Static bending test
Conduct the test according to the method described in 5.3 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. There shall be no breaks or visible cracks in any part of the front fork. The permanent deformation of the axis of the measuring wheel axle or the simulated axle relative to the axis of the fork riser shall not be greater than 10 mm.
4.9.6 Front fork - Rearward impact test
126.96.36.199 Metal front fork
Carry out the test according to the method described in 5.4.1 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. If any part of the front fork breaks or has visible cracks, and the measured permanent deformation of the axle axis or simulated axis relative to the fork riser axis is greater than 45 mm, the front fork will be judged to be unqualified.
If the front fork passes the first test, a second test shall be conducted according to the method described in 5.4.2 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. The front fork shall not break after the test. If the front fork passes the first and second tests, the third test shall be conducted according to the method described in 5.4.3 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. Without considering the amount of permanent deformation, there shall be no relative movement between the front fork riser and the front fork crown after the test.
188.8.131.52 Front forks containing composite parts
Carry out the test according to the method described in 5.4.1 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. No part of the fork shall break. The measured permanent deformation of the axis of the axle or simulated axis relative to the axis of the front fork riser shall not be greater than 45 mm. If the front fork passes the first test, a second test shall be conducted according to the method described in 5.4.3 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. Apply torque to the front fork. Without considering the amount of permanent deformation, there shall be no relative movement between the front fork stem and the front crown.
4.9.7 Front fork - Bending fatigue test plus rearward impact test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 5.5 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. No part of the fork shall break. The measured permanent deformation of the axis of the axle or simulated axis relative to the axis of the front fork riser shall not be greater than 45 mm.
For front forks made of composite materials, during the test, the operating displacement (peak-peak) rigidity of the force application point of the front fork shall not be greater than 20% of the initial value. The shock-absorbing front fork shall not be greater than 40% of the initial value (see 4.6 in GB/T 3565.3-2022).
4.9.8 Front forks for hub brakes or disc brakes
184.108.40.206 Static braking torque test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 5.6.2 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. There shall be no breaks or visible cracks in any part of the fork.
220.127.116.11 Front fork of hub brake/disc brake - Brake fatigue test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 5.6.3 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. There shall be no breaks or visible cracks in any part of the fork. For shock-absorbing forks, no parts shall come apart.
the tyre manufacturer is permanently marked on the side of the tyre.
4.11.3 Overpressure test of tyre and rim combination
The casing, inner tube and lining shall match the design of the rim. Determine the lower of the maximum inflation pressure marked on the rim or tyre. When the tyre is inflated to 135% of the pressure value, maintain it for 60 min. The tyre shall still be completely wrapped around the rim.
NOTE: GB/T 7377 provides tyre dimensions. GB/T 23657 provides the dimensions of the rim. Until there is a corresponding international standard, tyre and rim fit requirements refer to other relevant publications. See Bibliography  and .
4.11.4 Tubular tyres and rims
Tubular tyres shall conform to the design requirements of the rim. Instructions on correct bonding techniques shall be given in the instructions provided by the manufacturer in the instructions for assembling the bicycle or tyre [see Chapter 5 v)]. 4.11.5 Rim wear
If the rim is used as an integral part of the braking system, wear of the rim can lead to a risk of failure. The manufacturer shall clearly and permanently mark the warning on the rim not covered by the tyre to remind cyclists to pay attention. [See Chapter 5 u) and 6.2].
NOTE: The symbols mentioned in the installation manual serve as an indicator of rim wear. For rims made of composite materials, the manufacturer shall warn the user in the instructions of the danger of rim failure due to wear of the braking surface. 4.11.6 Heat resistance test of composite wheel
A fully assembled wheel made of composite material shall be fitted with appropriately sized tyres. Inflate it to the lesser of the maximum inflation pressure marked on the tyre or rim. The test is carried out according to the method described in 4.4.1 of GB/T 3565.7-2022, which shall be:
- No failure occurs in any component of the wheel;
- No separation between the rim and the tyre occurs during the test;
- The increase in ri...