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GB 18296-2019 English PDF (GB18296-2019)

GB 18296-2019 English PDF (GB18296-2019)

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GB 18296-2019: Safety property requirements and test methods for automobile fuel tank and its installation

This Standard specifies the safety performance requirements and test methods of automobile fuel tank containing liquid fuel. This Standard also specifies the safety requirements for the installation of automobile fuel tank on the vehicles.
GB 18296-2019
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.060.40
T 16
Replacing GB 18296-2001
Safety Property Requirements and Test Methods
for Automobile Fuel Tank and Its Installation
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 17, 2019
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 01, 2020
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 5
4 Safety Property Requirements ... 6
4.1 Fuel tank ... 6
4.2 Installation of the fuel tank ... 8
5 Test Methods ... 9
5.1 Pressure-proof test of metal fuel tank ... 9
5.2 Flip test ... 9
5.3 Impact resistance test at low temperature of plastic fuel tank ... 10 5.4 Pressure-proof test of plastic fuel tank ... 10
5.5 Fuel permeability test of plastic fuel tank ... 11
5.6 Fuel resistance test of the plastic fuel tank ... 11
5.7 Fire resistance test of plastic fuel tank ... 11
5.8 High-temperature resistance test of plastic fuel tank ... 13
5.9 Vibration durability test of metal fuel tank ... 13
6 Implementation of Standard ... 13
Appendix A (Normative) Size and Technical Requirements of Refractory Brick ... 14
Appendix B (Normative) Fire-Resistance Test ... 15
Foreword
All technical contents in this Standard are mandatory.
This Standard was drafted as per the rules specified in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Standard replaced GB 18296-2001 Safety Property Requirements and Test Methods for Automobile Fuel Tank. Compared with GB 18296-2001, this Standard has the major differences as follows:
--- Modify the standard name into Safety Property Requirements and Test Methods for Automobile Fuel Tank and Its Installation.
--- Modify the scope of application of the standard from ?€?this Standard specifies the safety property requirements and test methods for automobile fuel tank with gasoline and diesel as the fuel?€? to ?€?this Standard specifies the safety property requirements and test methods for automobile fuel tank filled with liquid fuel; and the safety requirements for installation on the automobile?€?; meanwhile, add the application of the Class-O automobile (see Clause 1 of this Edition; Clause 1 of 2001 Edition);
--- Add the requirements and test methods for fuel tank overturn test (see 4.1.7, 5.2 of this Edition);
--- Add fuel permeability requirements and test methods for plastic fuel tank (see 4.1.10, 5.5 of this Edition);
--- Add fuel resistance requirements and test methods of plastic fuel tank (see 4.1.11, 5.6 of this Edition);
--- Modify the fire resistance test method of the plastic fuel tank (see 4.1.12 of this Edition; 3.10 of 2001 Edition);
--- Add the safety requirements for fuel tank installation (see 4.2 of this Edition); --- Delete the technical requirements and test methods of plastic fuel tank vibration (see 3.5, 4.3 of 2001 Edition);
--- Delete the requirements and test methods for the opening pressure of the safety valve; introduce the automatic pressure compensation devices to balance the pressure inside and outside the fuel tank (see 3.4, 4.2 of 2001 Edition). The technical contents in this Standard refers to the Economic Commission for Europe ECE R34 Uniform Regulations on the Certification of Fire Resistance of Vehicle (03 Revision, 2015 Edition)
This Standard was proposed by and under the jurisdiction of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology.
Drafting organizations of this Standard: Dongfeng Motor Corporation Technical Center; National Automobile Quality Supervision and Test Center (Xiangyang); YAPP Automotive Parts Co., Ltd.; National Passenger Car Quality Supervision and Inspection Center; Wanxiang Tongda Co., Ltd.; and Bengbu Tongda Auto Parts Co., Ltd.
Chief drafting staffs of this Standard: Ning Binhua, Fang Jing, Song Qinghua, Wang Linglong, Xu Rui, Chen Yihu, Zhao Ning, Liu Liang, Liu Zhili, and Xu Yuanke. The historical edition replaced by this Standard is as follows:
--- GB 18296-2001.
Safety Property Requirements and Test Methods
for Automobile Fuel Tank and Its Installation
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the safety performance requirements and test methods of automobile fuel tank containing liquid fuel.
This Standard also specifies the safety requirements for the installation of automobile fuel tank on the vehicles.
This Standard is applicable to the metal and plastic fuel tank of the Type-M, Type-N, and Type-O automobiles.
2 Normative References
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB 18352.6-2016 Limits and Measurement Methods for Emissions from Light- Duty Vehicles (CHINA 6)
3 Terms and Definitions
For the purpose of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 Automobile fuel tank
An independent tank assembly fixed on an automobile for storing fuel; is assembled by a fuel tank, a filler pipe, a filler port, a fuel tank cover, a pipe joint, and other auxiliary devices.
NOTE: it is referred to as fuel tank in this Standard.
3.2 Capacity of the fuel tank
In the fuel tank design parameters, the fuel filling volume specified by the manufacturer. NOTE: it is referred to as rated capacity.
3.3 Liquid fuel
The fuel that is liquid under normal temperature and pressure conditions. NOTE: it is referred to as fuel in this Standard.
3.4 Leakage of fuel
The fuel drops in a linear or drip form from the fuel tank.
3.5 Fuel permeability
The fuel is lost due to molecular diffusion in the fuel tank.
3.6 Automatic compensating pressure device
The device for automatically compensating the working pressure or safety pressure of the fuel tank.
NOTE: such as vent valve, safety valve, etc.
3.7 Working pressure of the fuel tank
The pressure above the liquid level in the fuel tank under normal automobile use conditions.
NOTE: it is referred to as working pressure in this Standard.
4 Safety Property Requirements
4.1 Fuel tank
4.1.1 The fuel tank shall be resistant to corrosion.
4.1.2 The fuel tank shall be made of fire-resistant metal material, or it may be made of plastic that meets the requirements of this Standard.
4.1.3 The fuel tank shall be equipped with automatic compensating pressure device (such as vent valves, safety valves, etc.).
4.1.4 The fuel tank cover shall be able to fix onto the filler pipe. In the case of the fuel tank cover is lost, if there are measures to prevent excessive evaporation of the fuel and fuel overflow, then it is considered to meet the requirements of this Clause. Specifically, the following methods can be used:
a) A non-removable fuel tank cover that opens and closes automatically; b) Any other measures that have the same effect. For example (including but not limited to), drawstring fuel tank cover, chain fuel tank cover, etc.; or the fuel tank cover using the same key as the ignition key (in this case, only when the fuel tank cover is locked, can the key remove from the fuel tank). However, for the Type-M1, and Type-N1 vehicles, it is not enough to use only the drawstring or chain fuel tank covers.
4.1.5 The seal between the fuel tank cover and the filter port shall be firm and reliable. When locked, the fuel tank cover shall press the gasket onto the filler pipe tightly. 4.1.6 When the metal fuel tank is performed pressure-proof test according to 5.1, there shall be no cracks or leakage; but the permanent deformation is allowed. 4.1.7 During the normal use of the vehicle, the fuel shall not overflow from the fuel tank cover; neither overflow from the automatic compensating pressure device. When performing the flip test according to 5.2, the fuel tank cover is allowed for the leakage of the fuel; however, the leakage speed shall not exceed 30g/min; gasoline fuel tank cover shall not have the leakage of the fuel.
4.1.8 When the plastic fuel tank is performed impact resistant test at low temperature as per 5.3, there shall be no leakage of fuel.
4.1.9 When the plastic fuel tank is performed pressure-proof test as per 5.4, there shall be no cracks or leakage; but the permanent deformation is allowed.
4.1.10 The fuel permeability requirements for the plastic fuel tank are as follows: a) Perform the test according to 5.5. When the ambient temperature is 40??C??2??C, the fuel evaporation shall be no greater than 20g/24h; if the test at an ambient temperature of 40??C??2??C does not meet the requirements, perform the test at the ambient temperature of 23??C??2??C, then the fuel evaporation shall be no greater than 10g/24h.
b) If the whole vehicle assembled with fuel tank meets the requirements of 5.3.4 in GB 18352.6-2016, the fuel tank is considered to meet the requirements of a). 4.1.11 When the plastic fuel tank is performed fuel resistance test according to 5.6, it shall meet the requirements of 4.1.8 and 4.1.9.
4.1.12 When the plastic fuel tank is performed fire resistance test according to 5.7, it shall be no leakage of fuel.
4.1.13 When the plastic fuel tank is performed high-temperature resistance property test according to 5.8, it shall be no leakage of fuel or severe deformation. 4.1.14 When the metal fuel tank is performed vibration durability test according to 5.9, it shall be no leakage of fuel.
4.2 Installation of the fuel tank
4.2.1 All parts of the fuel tank shall be properly protected by the vehicle body or frame parts to prevent contact with obstacles on the ground. If the clearance BETWEEN the vehicle body or frame parts installed in front of the fuel tank AND the ground is less than the clearance BETWEEN fuel tank part AND the group, it can be regarded as a protective measure.
4.2.2 The pipeline and other components of the fuel tank shall be installed in the vehicle as securely as possible. Any torsion, bending, vibration of the vehicle structural parts or driving parts shall not cause friction, crushing or any other abnormal stress on the fuel tank parts.
4.2.3 The design and construction of the connection bet ween the hose and the rigid component on the fuel tank shall ensure that no leakage shall occur under various use conditions of the vehicle, whether it is torsion, bending, or vibration of the vehicle structural parts or driving parts.
4.2.4 Filler port shall be located in the passenger compartment, luggage compartment, or engine compartment.
4.2.5 If the filler port is arranged on the side of the vehicle, and the fuel tank cove is closed, it shall not protrude the adjacent vehicle body or surface of the cargo compartment.
4.2.6 Ventilation hole shall be designed to prevent fire. In particular, any leakage of fuel that may occur during the refueling shall not fall on the exhaust system, but shall be directed to the ground.
4.2.7 The fuel tank shall not be located in the passenger compartment, neither shall be used as a side-face (floor, side wall, front panel) of the passenger compartment; nor shall be integrated with other compartments.
4.2.8 There shall be a partition between the fuel tank and the passenger compartment. The partition may have apertures (for instance for wiring harnesses); its arrangement shall ensure that the fuel not flow from the fuel tank to the passenger compartment or other compartment during the normal use.
4.2.9 The installation of the fuel tank shall be firm and reliable to ensure that the fuel leaked from the fuel tank or its accessories flow to the ground during the normal use; and shall not flow to the passenger compartment.
4.2.10 There shall be no protrusions, sharp edges, etc. near the fuel tank. 4.2.11 The fuel tank and its accessories shall be designed and installed to avoid any fire caused by static electricity. For fuel tanks containing fuel with a flash point of 55??C below, it is necessary to take discharge measures.
5 Test Methods
5.1 Pressure-proof test of metal fuel tank
The fuel tank shall be installed with all accessories under normal use. Fill the fuel tank with a non-flammable liquid (for instance, water). Block all the ports of the fuel tank to the outside; pressurize it slowly through the fuel pipe of fuel tank till it reaches twice the working pressure; it shall be no less than 80kPa under any case; maintain the pressure for 30s.
Check and record the leakage and deformation of the fuel tank.
5.2 Flip test
5.2.1 Fix the fuel tank body and all its accessories including the automatic compensating pressure device onto the test bench according to its installation method on the vehicle.
5.2.2 The fuel tank shall rotate around an axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
5.2.3 The test shall be carried out for twice; once to fill the fuel tank with 90% of the rated capacity of liquid for testing; once to fill the fuel tank with 30% of the rated capacity of liquid for testing. The liquid for testing is the non-flammable liquid, its viscosity and density are similar to that of the fuel under normal use (water can be used).
5.2.4 Turn the fuel tank 90?? to the right from its installation position; keep it in this position for at least 5min. Then continue to rotate 90?? in the above direction; keep it in the fully flipped position for at least 5min. Return the fuel tank; discharge the liquid for testing that failed to flow back to the fuel tank from the vent hole; add it if necessary. Rotate the fuel tank 90?? to the left in the opposite direction; keep it in this position for at least 5min. Then continue to rotate 90?? in this direction; keep it in the fully flipped position for at least 5min.
Flipping speed: every 90?? rotation angle, the rotation time shall be 1min~3min. Check and record the leakage conditions of the fuel tank.
5.3 Impact resistance test at low temperature of plastic fuel tank
5.3.1 Fill the fuel tank with water and glycol mixed solution or non-corrosive low freezing point solution to the rated capacity.
5.3.2 During the test, the temperature of the solution in the fuel tank shall be maintained at -40 ??C??2??C.
5.3.3 Use a pendulum test device for testing. The pendulum requirements are as follows:
a) The total mass of the pendulum (including the angle hammer) is 15kg; b) Requirements for angle hammer: the material is steel; the shape is pyramid; with square base, equilateral triangle side; the fillet radius on the top and each edge is 3mm;
c) The center of impact of the pendulum coincides with the center of gravity of the angle hammer; the distance between the center of impact and the axis of rotation is 1m;
d) During the test, the impact energy of the angle hammer is at least 30J; it shall be as close as possible to this value.
5.3.4 Select the vulnerable part on the fuel tank for testing. The vulnerable part refers to the weaker part of the fuel tank that is exposed to the outside when the whole vehicle is installed. The impact site selected before the test shall be marked; and indicated in the test report.
5.3.5 During the test, the fuel tank shall be fixed by a fixing device on the side opposite to the impacted surface of the fuel tank.
5.3.6 All impact tests can be performed on the same fuel tank; or individual impact test can be performed on different fuel tanks.
Check and record the leakage of the fuel tank.
5.4 Pressure-proof test of plastic fuel tank
Fix the fuel tank on the test device in the simulation loading form; maintain an ambient temperature at 53??C??2??C; add 53??C??2??C water to the fuel tank to reach the rated capacity; cover the fuel tank cap; seal all the inlets and outlets. Then apply 2 times the working pressure into the fuel tank, which shall be no less than 30kPa under any circumstances; maintain the pressure for 5h.
Check and record the leakage and deformation of the fuel tank.
5.5 Fuel permeability test of plastic fuel tank
5.5.1 The test oil s hall be the benchmark fuel specified in GB/T 18352.6-2016, or the benchmark fuel for current automotive emission test. The fuel tank of the vehicle equipped with compression-ignition engine shall use diesel; while the fuel tank of the vehicle equipped with ignition engine shall use gasoline.
5.5.2 Pretreatment before test: inject test fuel into the fuel tank to reach 50% of the rated capacity. The fuel tank is not sealed and stored in an environment with temperature at 40??C??2??C till the amount of fuel loss per unit time reaches a stable state, but no more than 4 weeks.
5.5.3 Empty the fuel tank and inject the new test fuel to reach 50% of the rated capacity. Seal the fuel tank and store it in an environment with temperature at 40??C??2??C. When the internal temperature of the fuel tank reaches the test temperature, release the internal pressure of the fuel tank. The test period is 8 weeks, measure the fuel evaporation. Determine the average fuel evaporation per 24h.
5.5.4 If taking the test method in 5.5.3, the fuel evaporation exceeds the index specified in 4.1.10, then adjust the ambient temperature at 23??C??2??C; retest the same fuel tank according to the same test method.
5.6 Fuel resistance test of the plastic fuel tank
After the fuel tank has completed the permeability test in 5.5, it shall take the low- temperature impact resistance test in 5.3 and pressure-proof test in 5.4. Check and record the leakage of the fuel tank.
5.7 Fire resistance test of plastic fuel tank
5.7.1 Fuel tank installation and fuel type filling requirements:
a) If the fuel tank is only used for the ignition engines or can be used both for the ignition engine and the compression ignition engine, then the commercial gasoline shall be filled for each test;
b) If the fuel tank is only used for the vehicles equipped with compression ignition engine, commercial diesel shall be filled for each test;
c) The fuel tank and its accessories shall be installed and fixed on the test bench as much as possible to simulate the actual loading state. If the vehicle is equipped with the components that affect the spread of fire, it shall also be installed. All openings shall be sealed during the test; the automatic
compensation pressure device shall be dept in working condition. Fill the fuel specified in Items a) and b) to fuel tank and reaches 50% of its rapid capacity. 5.7.2 Size requirements of oil tank: ensure that all edges of the fuel tank are exposed to the flame; the length and width of the oil tank shall exceed the projection line of the fuel tank on the horizontal plane by 200mm~500mm. The part of the oil tank side wall exceeding the fuel level shall not exceed 80mm.
5.7.3 Refueling quantity of oil tank: the amount of fuel in the oil tank shall be sufficient to ensure the test can be kept to the end under the free burning conditions. 5.7.4 When the oil tank containing the fuel is placed in the lower part of the fuel tank, the distance between the fuel liquid level and the bottom of the fuel tank shall be the same as the height of the fuel tank above the ground when the vehicle is unloaded. The oil tank and other devices can move freely during the test.
5.7.5 Flame-resistant isolating cover for test: see Appendix A for refractory brick structure and technical requirements. There shall be no gap between the refractory bricks; and they shall be supported on the oil tank in the manner described below: the holes on the refractory brick shall not be blocked. The length and width of the ...

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