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GB 18285-2005 English PDF (GB18285-2005)

GB 18285-2005 English PDF (GB18285-2005)

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GB 18285-2005: Limits and measurement methods for exhaust pollutants from vehicles equipped ignition engine under two-speed idle conditions and simple driving mode conditions

This standard specifies the emission limits and measurement methods of exhaust pollutants, under the idling and high idling conditions of vehicles equipped ignition engine. This standard also specifies three simple working condition measurement methods: Steady state working condition method, transient working condition method, simple transient working condition method, for light-duty vehicles equipped with ignition engines.
GB 18285-2005
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 13.040.50
Z 64
Replacing GB 14761.5-93, GB/T 3845-93
Partially replacing GB 18285-2000
Limits and measurement methods for exhaust pollutants
from vehicles equipped ignition engine under two-speed idle
conditions and simple driving mode conditions
ISSUED ON: MAY 30, 2005
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 01, 2005
Issued by: State Environmental Protection Administration;
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 5
1 Scope ... 6
2 Normative references ... 6
3 Terms and definitions... 7
4 Emission limits of exhaust pollutant ... 9
5 Measurement method ... 10
6 Single-fuel vehicles and dual-fuel vehicles ... 12
7 Determination of measurement results ... 12
8 Emission monitoring of in-use vehicles ... 12
9 Implementation of standard ... 12
Appendix A (Normative) Technical specifications for testing instrument for exhaust gas in dual-idle method ... 13
Appendix B (Normative) Steady state measurement method ... 22
Appendix C (Normative) Measurement method by transient condition method ... 44 Appendix D (Normative) Measurement method by simple transient condition method ... 61
Limits and measurement methods for exhaust pollutants
from vehicles equipped ignition engine under two-speed idle
conditions and simple driving mode conditions
1 Scope
This standard specifies the emission limits and measurement methods of exhaust pollutants, under the idling and high idling conditions of vehicles equipped ignition engine.
This standard also specifies three simple working condition measurement methods: Steady state working condition method, transient working condition method, simple transient working condition method, for light-duty vehicles equipped with ignition engines.
This standard applies to new production and in-use vehicles, which are equipped with ignition engines.
2 Normative references
The clauses in the following documents become clauses of this standard, through reference in this standard. For undated references, the latest edition applies to this standard.
GB 14762-2002 Limits and measurement methods for exhaust emissions from positive ignition (P.I.) engines of vehicles and vehicles equipped with P.I. Engines GB 18352.1-2001 Limits and measurement methods for emissions of pollutants from light-duty vehicles (I)
GB 18352.2-2001 Limits and measurement methods for emissions of pollutants from light-duty vehicles (II)
GB 17930-1999 Unleaded petrol (gasoline) for motor vehicles
GB/T 15089-2001 Classification of power-driven vehicles and trailers
GB 5181-2001 Automotive emission - Terms and definitions
GB 18047 Compressed natural gas as vehicle fuel
GB 19159 Automotive liquefied petroleum gas
HJ/T 3-1993 Gasoline-fueled motor vehicles - Exhaust emission analyzer - Technical specifications
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions apply to this standard.
3.1 Light-duty vehicles
Refers to categories M1, M2, N1 vehicles, which have a maximum gross mass not exceeding 3500 kg.
3.2 Categories M1, M2, N1 vehicles
Category M1 vehicle refers to a passenger vehicle, which has at least four wheels, OR has three wheels and a factory-set maximum gross mass exceeding 1000 kg, as well as more than 8 passenger seats except the driver's seat.
Category M2 vehicle refers to a passenger vehicle, which has at least four wheels, OR has three wheels and a factory-set maximum total mass exceeding 1000 kg, as well as more than 8 passenger seats except the driver's seat, AND a factory-set maximum total mass not exceeding 5000 kg.
Category N1 vehicle refers to a cargo vehicle, which has at least four wheels, OR three wheels and a factory-set maximum total mass exceeding 1000 kg, AND a factory-set maximum total mass not exceeding 3500 kg.
3.3 Heavy-duty vehicles
Refers to vehicles, which have a maximum gross mass exceeding 3500 kg.
3.4 Category 1 light-duty vehicles
Category M1 vehicles, which have a design occupant of not more than 6 people (including the driver) AND a maximum total mass of ??? 2500 kg.
3.5 Category 2 light-duty vehicles
All other light-duty vehicles within the scope of application of this standard, except the category 1 light-duty vehicles.
3.6 Newly produced vehicles
In this standard, it refers to the automobiles that have been qualified and put into storage OR shipped out of the factory.
comply with the provisions of HJ/T 3-93 "Gasoline-fueled motor vehicles - Exhaust emission analyzer - Technical specifications".
5.1.2 For the vehicles, which are equipped with ignition engines, which are manufactured, in accordance with GB 18352.1-2001 "Limits and measurement methods for emissions of pollutants from light-duty vehicles (I)" or GB 18352.2-2001 "Limits and measurement methods for emissions of pollutants from light-duty vehicles (II)", AND the vehicles equipped with ignition engine of phase II emission limit, which complies with GB 14762-2002 "Limits and measurement methods for exhaust emissions from positive ignition (P.I.) engines of vehicles and vehicles equipped with P.I. Engines", the emission measuring instrument used shall comply with the provisions of Appendix A.
5.2 Measurement procedure
5.2.1 It shall be ensured that the tested vehicle is in the normal state, which is specified by the manufacturer. The air intake system of the engine shall be equipped with an air filter; the exhaust system shall be equipped with an exhaust muffler; there shall be no leakage.
5.2.2 Measuring instruments, such as tachometer, ignition timing meter, coolant and lubricating oil thermometer, shall be installed on the engine. During measurement, the temperature of engine coolant and lubricating oil shall not be lower than 80 ??C, OR reach the hot vehicle state, which is specified in the vehicle instruction manual. 5.2.3 The engine is accelerated from the idle state to 70% of the rated speed; after running for 30 s, it is lowered to the high idle state. Insert the sampling probe into the exhaust pipe, to a depth of not less than 400 mm. Fix it on the exhaust pipe. After maintaining for 15 s, use an instrument, which has the average function, to read the average value within 30 s; OR artificially read the highest and lowest values within 30 s. The average value is the measurement result of pollutants at high idle speed. For vehicles, which use closed-loop electronic fuel injection systems and three-way catalytic converter technology, it shall also read the excess air factor (??) value, at the same time.
5.2.4 After the engine is lowered from high idle speed to idle state for 15 s, use an instrument with averaging function, to read the average value within 30 s, OR manually read the highest and lowest values within 30 s; the average value is the pollutant measurement results, at idle speed.
5.2.5 In the case of multiple exhaust pipes, take the arithmetic mean of the measurement results of each exhaust pipe, as the measurement result.
5.2.6 If the length of the vehicle exhaust pipe is less than the measurement depth, the exhaust extension pipe shall be used.
6 Single-fuel vehicles and dual-fuel vehicles
6.1 For single-fuel vehicles, only the gaseous fuel is used for emission testing. For dual- fuel vehicles, emission testing is required for the two fuels, respectively. 7 Determination of measurement results
7.1 For vehicles specified in clause 4, if one of the detected pollutants exceeds the specified limit, the emission shall be deemed unqualified.
7.2 For vehicles, which use closed-loop control electronic fuel injection system and three-way catalytic converter technology, if the detected excess air factor (??) exceeds the requirements in clause 4.3, the emissions are considered unqualified. 8 Emission monitoring of in-use vehicles
8.1 From the date of implementation of this standard, the national emission monitoring of in-use vehicles, which are equipped with ignition engines, adopts the emission limits and measurement methods of double-idle method exhaust pollutant, which are stipulated in this standard. In areas where the quantity of motor vehicles is large AND the pollution is serious, the simple working condition method, which is listed in appendixes B, C, D of this standard, can also be used as required.
8.2 Relevant administrative departments, at the provincial level, may determine the emission monitoring plan for in-use vehicles, according to the actual local conditions; select one of the dual idle speed method or the simple working condition method, as the detection method for exhaust pollutant emissions of in-use vehicles. For the emission monitoring of in-use vehicles of the same model, two or more exhaust pollutant emission detection methods shall not be used, in regular environmental protection detections.
8.3 In areas where the simple working condition method is adopted, local exhaust pollutant emission limits shall be formulated, which shall be implemented after being approved by the provincial people's government AND reported to the relevant administrative department of the State Council for filing. The basic principles and methods, for determining the emission limits of exhaust pollutants, by the simple working condition method, shall be formulated separately by the relevant administrative departments of the State Council.
9 Implementation of standard
This standard is implemented from July 1, 2005.
Appendix A
(Normative)
Technical specifications for testing instrument for exhaust gas in dual-idle method
A.1 Scope
This Appendix specifies the technical conditions to be met, by the emission testing instruments, which are used in the test, in 5.1.2 of this standard.
A.2 Basic technical requirements
A.2.1 It can measure the volume fraction (or concentration) of the four components of automobile exhaust pollutants: CO, CO2, HC (expressed in n-hexane equivalent), O2; meanwhile it can calculate the excess air coefficient (??) value, according to the requirements.
A.2.2 The measurement of CO, CO2, HC adopts non-dispersive infra-red method (NDIR); the measurement of O2 adopts electrochemical cell method. Equivalent methods may also be used, BUT equivalence needs to be demonstrated.
A.2.3 It has built-in engine speed and oil temperature measurement function OR speed and oil temperature signal input port.
A.2.4 All components of the gas treatment system are made of corrosion-resistant materials; this material has no effect on the gas sampling composition. The sampling probe shall be able to withstand the high temperature of the exhaust gas AND have limit and fixation devices.
A.2.5 The instrument shall have idle speed and high idle speed measurement procedures, which meet the requirements of this standard.
A.3 Structural requirements
A.3.1 General
The test instrument transmits the sample gas to the gas processing system and the detector for analysis, by sampling; sends out the signal which is related to the volume fraction of the tested component, to determine the volume fraction (or concentration) and excess air coefficient (??) of automobile exhaust pollutants.
A.3.2 Main components of the instrument
A.3.2.1 Sampling tube
The sampling probe shall be able to be inserted into the exhaust pipe of the motor vehicle, for at least 400 mm; meanwhile there shall be a depth positioning device. A.3.2.2 Hose
Connect with the probe, as the sample gas inlet and outlet channels of the measurement system.
A.3.2.3 Pump
Transfer the gas to the instrument.
A.3.2.4 Water separator
A device that separates moisture from the sample gas AND prevents condensation from accumulating in the instrument. When the water vapor reaches saturation, it shall be able to automatically disengage or automatically stop the measurement operation. A.3.2.5 Filter
Removes particulate matter, which contaminates various sensitive parts of the instrument. The filter shall be able to remove particles, which are larger than 5 ??m in diameter; the degree of contamination can be observed, without taking it out, AND it shall be easy to replace. When measuring the gas, whose HC volume fraction is about 800 ?? 10-6, the usage time can be guaranteed not less than 30 min.
A.3.2.6 Zero gas port and calibration port
This port is located downstream of the water separator and filter, including the ports, for introducing clean ambient gas and calibration gas, for zero adjustment of the measuring instrument.
A.3.2.7 Detection element
The components in the gas sample are analyzed, by volume fraction.
A.3.2.8 Data systems and display devices
The data system processes the signals; the display device displays the measurement results.
A.3.2.9 Control adjustment device
It completes the instrument initialization and start-up inspection. Adjust the instrument parameters within the set range, through manual, semi-automatic or fully automatic adjustment devices.
A.3.3 Instrument indication resolution
measurement channel of O2, after the gas is switched from air to nitrogen (without O2), the instrument shall indicate an indication value, which has is less than 0.1% of the final indication value (volume fraction), within 60 s.
A.3.7 Repeatability
In a stable external environment, the repeatability of the indicated value shall meet the requirements that, the experimental standard deviation shall not exceed 1/3 of the value specified in A.3.4, when the same person makes 20 measurements of the same calibration gas, within a short time interval.
A.3.8 Time stability
Under stable environmental conditions, when the measuring instrument is in the measuring state, the value shall and remain within the accuracy range specified in A.3.4, within at least 4 h, when the user does not need to adjust the internal or calibration gas. A.3.9 The measuring instrument shall be equipped with a gas flow monitoring system. When the gas flow is reduced to a certain level, which makes the detection exceed the response time specified in A.3.6 or 1/2 of the accuracy specified in A.3.4, the measurement system shall automatically abort the measurement.
A.3.10 Requirements for gas density of gas processing system
The measuring instrument shall have a leak monitoring procedure for the processing system; the measurement shall be automatically terminated when the leak exceeds the maximum allowable value.
A.3.11 Adjustment device
A.3.11.1 The instrument shall have adjustment devices, to provide zero point adjustment, gas calibration, internal adjustment and other operations. This device can be manual, semi-automatic or automatic.
A.3.11.2 The adjustment device shall be automatic, for zero calibration and internal adjustment.
A.3.11.3 The internal adjustment device shall not affect the zero adjustment nor the linear response of the instrument. It shall be suitable for adjustment of various calibration gases.
A.3.12 Operational reliability
A.3.12.1 The measuring instrument shall have sufficient anti-interference ability, to ensure that the instrument accuracy is within its range, under normal use conditions. A.3.12.2 The instrument, which has HC channel, shall have a device for detecting HC gas residue. The measurement shall be automatically stopped, when the HC gas residue B.2.1.1.1 ASM5025 working condition
The warmed vehicle is accelerated to 25.0 km/h. The dynamometer loads the vehicle, at 50% of the output power, when the vehicle speed is 25.0 km/h and the acceleration is 1.475 m/s2, as the set power. The condition timer starts timekeeping (t = 0 s). The vehicle runs continuously for 5 s, at a speed of 25.0 km/h ?? 1.5 km/h. If the inertia value, which is simulated by the chassis dynamometer, continues to exceed the specified error range for 3 s, after the timekeeping starts, the working condition timer will restart the timekeeping (t = 0). If this happens again, the testing will be stopped. The system will be preset, according to the longest response time of the analyzer, (if the response time of the analyzer is 10 s, the preset time is 10 s, t = 15); then the system starts sampling; it runs continuously for 10 s (t = 25 s), which is the ASM 5025 fast checking condition. After the ASM 5025 fast checking condition finishes, it continues to run for 90 s (t = 90 s), which is the ASM 5025 condition.
B.2.1.1.2 ASM 2540 working condition
The vehicle is accelerated to 40.0 km/h, immediately after finishing the ASM 5025 condition testing. The dynamometer loads the vehicle, at 25% of the output power, when the vehicle speed is 40.0 km/h and the acceleration is 1.475 m/s2, as the set power. The condition timer starts timekeeping (t = 0 s). The vehicle runs continuously for 5 s, at a speed of 40.0 km/h ?? 1.5 km/h. If the inertia value, which is simulated by the chassis dynamometer, continues to exceed the specified error range for 3 s, after the timekeeping starts, the working condition timer will restart the timekeeping (t = 0). If this happens again, the testing will be stopped. The system will be preset, according to the longest response time of the analyzer, (if the response time of the analyzer is 10 s, the preset time is 10 s, t = 15); then the system starts sampling; it runs continuously for 10 s (t = 25 s), which is the ASM 2540 fast checking condition. After the ASM 2540 fast checking condition finishes, it continues to run for 90 s (t = 90 s), which is the ASM 2540 condition.
B.2.2 Vehicles and fuel
B.2.2.1 Test vehicle
B.2.2.1.1 The mechanical condition of the vehicle shall be good; there shall be no mechanical failure, which affects safety or causes test deviation.
B.2.2.1.2 There shall be no leakage in the vehicle's intake and exhaust systems. B.2.2.1.3 The engine, transmission and cooling system of the vehicle shall be free of liquid leakage.
B.2.2.1.4 The tire surface wear shall comply with the relevant standards. The tire pressure of the driving wheel shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's specification.
maximum analog output power of the dynamometer shall be greater than 18 kW, when the vehicle which has an inertia of 800 ~ 2700 kg AND a speed of 90 km/h accelerates. The inertia's simulation deviation shall be marked; the inertia simulation shall be corrected accordingly.
B.2.3.1.5.3 Inertia simulation system response
The inertia simulation torque response shall reach 90% of the final torque change value, within 0.3 s.
B.2.3.1.5.4 Inertia simulation error
The inertia simulation error shall not exceed ??3% of the selected inertial mass of the tested vehicle.
B.2.3.1.6 Other requirements
B.2.3.1.6.1 The dynamometer shall be equipped with a drum speed measuring device. The maximum speed, that the dynamometer shall be able to achieve, is 90 km/h. When the vehicle speed is greater than 10 km/h, the measurement accuracy shall be ??0.2 km/h. B.2.3.1.6.2 The dynamometer shall be equipped with a limit system. The limit system shall ensure that horizontal and vertical forces, which are applied to the drive wheels, have no effect on emission measurements.
B.2.3.1.6.3 The dynamometer shall be equipped with a device, for cooling the vehicle. The cooling system shall be activated when the ambient temperature exceeds 22 ??C. It shall avoid cooling the vehicle catalytic converter.
B.2.3.1.6.4 The installation of the dynamometer shall ensure that, the test vehicle is in a horizontal position, during the test on the dynamometer.

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