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GB 12676-2014 English PDF (GB12676-2014)

GB 12676-2014 English PDF (GB12676-2014)

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GB 12676-2014: Road vehicle -- Braking systems -- Structure, performance and test methods

This Standard specifies the technical requirements and testing methods for commercial vehicle and trailer braking systems. This Standard applies to power-driven vehicles of categories M2, M3 and N AND trailers of category O, as specified in GB/T 15089.
GB 12676-2014
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.040.40
T 24
GB/T 12676-2014
Replacing GB/T 12676-1999
Technical Requirements and Testing Methods for
Commercial Vehicle and Trailer Braking Systems
ISSUED ON: OCTOBER 10, 2014
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 01, 2015
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of PRC;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
1 Scope ... 9
2 Normative References ... 9
3 Terms and Definitions ... 10
4 Specifications ... 16
5 Tests and Performance Requirements ... 43
6 Approval of Vehicle Type and Extension of Approval ... 61
7 Conformity of production (COP) ... 63
Annex A (Normative) Procedure for Monitoring the State of Battery Charge ... 64 Annex B (Normative) Method of measuring the response time on vehicles equipped with compressed-air braking systems ... 65
Annex C (Normative) Provisions relating to energy sources and energy storage devices (energy accumulators) ... 71
Annex D (Normative) Provisions relating to specific conditions for spring braking systems ... 79
Annex E (Normative) Distribution of braking among the axles of vehicles and requirements for compatibility between towing vehicles and trailers ... 82 Annex F (Normative) Test procedure to assess the functional compatibility of vehicles equipped with electric control lines ... 96
Annex G (Normative) Inertia dynamometer test method for brake linings ... 103 Annex H (Normative) Special requirements to be applied to the safety aspects of complex electronic vehicle control systems ... 107
Annex I (Normative) Test conditions for trailers with electrical braking systems ... 112 Annex J (Normative) Cases in which Type- I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III tests do not have to be carried out ... 115
Annex K (Normative) Alternative procedures for Type-I and Type-III tests for trailer brakes ... 117
Annex L (Normative) Conditions governing the testing of vehicles equipped with inertia (overrun) braking systems ... 124
Foreword
All specifications of this standard are compulsory.
This standard was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009. This standard replaces GB 12676-1999, Road vehicle-Braking systems-Structure, performance and test methods. Compared with GB 12676-1999, the following significant changes have been made: ?€? Deleted the content of the vehicles of Category M1;
?€? Added the following terms and definitions: Braking system, Control, Transmission, Brake, Different types of braking systems, Component of a braking system, Continuous braking, Semi-continuous braking, Automatic braking, Inertia (or overrun) braking, Progressive and graduated braking, Phased braking, Endurance braking system, Laden, Unladen, The distribution of mass among the axles, Wheel/axle load, Maximum stationary wheel/axle load, Electric regenerative braking, Simultaneous lockup of the front and rear wheels, Electric control line, Data communication, Point-to-point, Coupling force control, Nominal value, Automatically commanded braking, Selective braking and Reference braking forces, etc.; ?€? Deleted the following terms: Approval of a vehicle, braking of the same type, spring braking system, pressure defined by the manufacturer and controllable braking, etc.; ?€? Added the requirements for electric control line in the connections, for compressed-air braking systems, between power-driven vehicles and trailers (See 4.1.3, or 4.1.5 in GB 12676-1999); ?€? Added the provisions for the periodic technical inspection of braking systems (See 4.1.4); ?€? Added the provisions on safety of complex electronic control system (See 4.1.5); ?€? Added the requirements for distribution of the action of service braking system between the wheels of one and the same axle (See 4.2.1.8 and 4.2.2.5);
?€? Added the scope of vehicle categories that shall be equipped with an anti-lock braking system (See 4.2.1.22 and 4.2.2.13);
?€? Added the additional requirements for vehicles of categories M2, N1 and category N2 ?€? 5,000 kg equipped with an electric regenerative braking system (See 4.2.1.24); ?€? Added the special additional requirements for the electric transmission of the parking braking system (See 4.2.1.25);
?€? Added the special additional requirements for service braking systems with electric control transmission (See 4.2.1.26 and 4.2.2.15);
?€? Added the special requirements for coupling force control system (See 4.2.1.27); ?€? Added the Free running test (See 5.1.5.4);
?€? Added the Type-III test (See 5.1.7);
?€? Added the scope of vehicle categories that shall be subject to the Type-II A test: (See 5.1.8.1); ?€? Added the minimum braking performance requirements for the power-driven vehicles that are allowed to be coupled with the unbraked trailer (See 5.2.1.2);
?€? Added the additional failure check and performance requirements for vehicles employing electric regenerative braking systems in emergency brake test (See 5.2.2.6); ?€? Modified the evaluation indicators for the laden stopping distance of Category M2 and the unladen stopping distance of Category N1 (See 5.2.4.1, or 5.2.2 in GB 12676-1999); ?€? Incorporated the Clause 6 ?€?braking system test method?€? into the Clause 5, and cancelled the optional test (See Clause 5, or Clause 6 in GB 12676-1999);
?€? Added the approval of vehicle type and extension of approval (See Clause 6); ?€? Added the conformity of production (See Clause 7);
?€? Added the procedure for monitoring the state of battery charge (See Annex A); ?€? Added the method of measuring the response time on vehicles equipped with compressed-air braking systems (See Annex B);
?€? Added the provisions relating to energy sources and energy storage devices (energy accumulators) (See Annex C);
?€? Added the provisions relating to specific conditions for spring braking systems (See Annex D); ?€? Added the test procedure to assess the functional compatibility of vehicles equipped with electric control lines (See Annex F);
?€? Added the special requirements to be applied to the safety aspects of complex electronic vehicle control systems (See Annex H);
?€? Added the test conditions for trailers with electrical braking systems (See Annex I); Technical Requirements and Testing Methods for
Commercial Vehicle and Trailer Braking Systems
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the technical requirements and testing methods for commercial vehicle and trailer braking systems.
This Standard applies to power-driven vehicles of categories M2, M3 and N AND trailers of category O, as specified in GB/T 15089.
This Standard does not cover:
?€? Vehicles with a design speed not exceeding 25 km/h;
?€? Trailers which may not be coupled to power-driven vehicles with a design speed exceeding 25 km/h.
2 Normative References
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB/T 3730.1 Motor vehicles and trailers-Types-Terms and definitions
GB/T 3730.2 Road vehicle-Masses-Vocabulary and codes
GB/T 5620 Road vehicles - Braking of automotive vehicles and their trailers - Vocabulary GB/T 5922 Motor vehicles and towed vehicles - Pressure test connection for compressed-air pneumatic braking equipment
GB/T 13594-2003 Antilock braking performance and test procedure for motor vehicles and their trailers
GB/T 15089 Classification of power-driven vehicles and trailers
?€? The number and ratios of gears;
?€? The final drive ratios;
?€? The tyre dimensions;
3.1.1.2 Trailer
With regard to braking system, the vehicles which do not differ in such essential respects as: ?€? The vehicle category;
?€? The maximum design total mass;
?€? The distribution of mass among the axles;
?€? A different type of braking equipment;
?€? The number and arrangement of the axles;
?€? The tyre dimensions;
3.1.2 "Braking system" means the combination of parts whose function is progressively to reduce the speed of a moving vehicle or bring it to a halt, or to keep it stationary if it is already halted. The system consists of the control, the transmission, and the brake proper; 3.1.3 "Actuation" means both application and release of the control.
3.1.4 "Transmission device" means the combination of components comprised between the control and the brake and linking them functionally. The transmission may be mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electric or mixed. Where the braking power is derived from or assisted by a source of energy independent of the driver, the reserve of energy in the system is likewise part of the transmission.
The transmission is divided into two independent functions: the control transmission and the energy transmission. Whenever the term "transmission" is used alone in this Standard, it means both the "control transmission" and the "energy transmission". The control and supply lines between towing vehicles and trailers shall not be considered as parts of the transmission. 3.1.4.1 "Control transmission device" means the combination of the components of the transmission which control the operation of the brakes, including the control function and the necessary reserve(s) of energy.
3.1.4.2 "Energy transmission device" means the combination of the components which supply to the ?€? The braking installation ensures simultaneous or suitably-phased braking of each of the constituent vehicles of the combination, whatever their relative positions; 3.1.10 "Automatic braking" means braking of the trailer or trailers occurring automatically in the event of separation of components of the combination of coupled vehicles, including such separation through the breakage of a coupling, the effectiveness of the braking of the remainder of the combination not being thereby destroyed;
3.1.11 "Inertia (or overrun) braking" means braking by utilizing the forces generated by the trailer's moving up on the towing vehicle;
3.1.12 "Progressive and graduated braking/modulatable braking" means braking during which, within the normal operating range of the equipment and during actuation of the brakes, the driver can at any moment increase or decrease the braking force by acting on the control and the braking force varies proportionally as the action on the control (monotonic function), which can be easily regulated with sufficient precision;
3.1.13 "Phased braking" is a means which may be used where two or more sources of braking are operated from a common control, whereby one source may be given priority by phasing back the other source(s) so as to make increased control movement necessary before they begin to be brought into operation.
3.1.14 "Endurance braking system" means an additional braking system having the capability to provide and to maintain a braking effect over a long period of time without a significant reduction in performance. The term "endurance braking system" covers the complete system including the control device. This definition doesn?€?t cover the vehicles equipped with electric regenerative braking system.
The endurance braking system may comprise a single device or a combination of several devices. Each device may have its own control.
3.1.14.1 "Independent endurance braking system" means an endurance braking system whose control device is separated from that of the service and other braking systems; 3.1.14.2 "Integrated endurance braking system" means an endurance braking system whose control device is integrated with that of the service braking system in such a way that both endurance and service braking systems are applied simultaneously or suitably phased by operation of the combined control device;
3.1.14.3 "Combined endurance braking system" means an integrated endurance braking system, which in addition has a cut-out device, which allows the combined control to apply the service braking system alone.
3.1.15 ?€?Unladen condition?€? means the complete vehicle kerb mass adding 110 kg. 3.1.24 "Data communication" means the transfer of digital data under the rules of a protocol. 3.1.25 "Point-to-point" means a topology of a communication network with only two units. Each unit has an integrated termination resistor for the communication line.
3.1.26 "Coupling force control system" means a system/function to automatically balance the braking rate of towing vehicle and trailer.
3.1.27 "Nominal value" definitions for braking reference performance are required to put a value on the transfer function of the braking system, relating output to input for vehicles individually and when used in combination.
"Nominal value" is defined, for a power-driven vehicle, as the characteristic which relates the braking rate of the vehicle on its own to the level of the braking input variable. "Nominal value" is defined, for a trailer, as the characteristic which relates the braking rate to the coupling head signal.
"Nominal demand value" is defined, for coupling force control, as the characteristic which relates the coupling head signal to the braking rate.
3.1.28 "Automatically commanded braking" means a function within a complex electronic control system where actuation of the braking system(s) or brakes of certain axles is made for the purpose of generating vehicle retardation with or without a direct action of the driver, resulting from the automatic evaluation of on-board initiated information.
3.1.29 "Selective braking" means a function within a complex electronic control system where actuation of individual brakes is made by automatic means in which vehicle retardation is secondary to vehicle behavior modification.
3.1.30 "Reference braking forces" means the braking forces of one axle generated at the circumference of the tyre on a roller brake tester.
3.2 Terms and definitions of complex electronic vehicle control system
3.2.1 "Safety concept" is a description of the measures designed into the system, for example within the electronic units, so as to address system integrity and thereby ensure safe operation even in the event of an electrical failure.
The possibility of a fallback to partial operation or even to a back-up system for vital vehicle functions may be a part of the safety concept.
3.2.2 "Electronic control system" means a combination of units, designed to co-operate in the production of the stated vehicle control function by electronic data processing. Standard. The braking response time on vehicles equipped with compressed-air braking systems shall comply with the specifications in Annex B. The energy sources and energy storage devices of braking system shall comply with the specifications in Annex C. The spring braking system shall comply with the specifications in Annex D.
4.1.1.2 The braking system shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to be able to resist the corroding and ageing phenomena to which it is exposed.
4.1.1.3 Brake linings shall not contain asbestos.
4.1.1.4 The effectiveness of the braking systems, including the electric control line, shall not be adversely affected by magnetic or electrical fields.
4.1.1.5 A failure detection signal may interrupt momentarily (< 10 ms) the demand signal in the control transmission, provided that the braking performance is thereby not reduced. 4.1.2 Functions of the braking system
4.1.2.1 Service braking system
The service braking system shall make it possible to control the movement of the vehicle and to halt it safely, speedily and effectively, whatever its speed and load, on any up or down gradient. It shall be possible to graduate this braking action. The driver shall be able to achieve this braking action from his driving seat without removing his hands from the steering control. 4.1.2.2 Secondary braking system
The secondary braking system shall make it possible to halt the vehicle within a reasonable distance in the event of failure of the service braking system. It shall be possible to graduate this braking action. The driver shall be able to obtain this braking action from his driving seat while keeping at least one hand on the steering control. For the purposes of these provisions it is assumed that not more than one failure of the service braking system can occur at one time. 4.1.2.3 Parking braking system
The parking braking system shall make it possible to hold the vehicle stationary on an up or down gradient even in the absence of the driver, the working parts being then held in the locked position by a purely mechanical device. The driver shall be able to achieve this braking action from his driving seat, subject, in the case of a trailer, to the provisions of paragraph 4.2.2.10 of this Standard. The trailer air brake and the parking braking system of the towing vehicle may be operated simultaneously provided that the driver is able to check, at any time, that the parking brake performance of the vehicle combination, obtained by the purely mechanical action of the parking braking system, is sufficient.
4.1.3.5 A trailer may be equipped as defined in paragraph 4.1.3.1c), provided that it can only be operated in conjunction with a power-driven vehicle with an electric control line which satisfies the requirements of paragraph 4.2.1.18b) In any other case, the trailer, when electrically connected, shall automatically apply the brakes or remain braked. The driver shall be warned by the separate yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 4.2.1.28a).
4.1.3.6 The electric control line shall conform to ISO 11992-1 and 11992-2:2003 and shall be a point-to-point type using the seven pin connector according to GB/T 20716.1 or GB/T 20716.2. The data contacts of the connector shall be used to transfer information exclusively for braking (including ABS) and running gear (steering, tyres and suspension) functions as specified in ISO 11992-2. The braking functions have priority and shall be maintained in the normal and failed modes. The transmission of running gear information shall not delay braking functions. The power supply, provided by the GB/T 20716.1 or 20716.2 connector, shall be used exclusively for braking and running gear functions and that required for the transfer of trailer related information not transmitted via the electric control line.
4.1.3.7 The functional compatibility of towing and towed vehicles equipped with electric control lines as defined above shall be assessed at the time of type approval by checking that the relevant provisions of ISO 11992-1 and 11992-2:2003, are fulfilled. Annex F of this Standard provides an example of tests that may be used to perform this assessment.
4.1.3.8 When a power-driven vehicle is equipped with an electric control line and electrically connected to a trailer equipped with an electric control line, a continuous failure (> 40 ms) within the electric control line shall be detected in the power-driven vehicle and shall be signaled to the driver by the yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 4.2.1.28a), when such vehicles are connected via the electric control line.
4.1.3.9 If the operation of the parking braking system on the power-driven vehicle also operates a braking system on the trailer, then the following additional requirements shall be met: a) When the power-driven vehicle is equipped according to paragraph 4.1.3.1a), the actuation of the parking brake system of the power-driven vehicle shall actuate a braking system on the trailer via the pneumatic control line.
b) When the power-driven vehicle is equipped according to paragraph 4.1.3...

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