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GB 12350-2009 English PDF (GB12350-2009)

GB 12350-2009 English PDF (GB12350-2009)

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GB 12350-2009: [GB/T 12350-2009] Safety requirements of small-power motors

This Standard stipulates the general safety requirements for small-power motors. This Standard is applicable to small-power motors specified by GB/T 5171 General Technical Requirements for Small Power Motors; other similar motors may also take this as a reference in implementation. This Standard is inapplicable to control motors (such as: servo motor, self-tuning machine, resolver, tachometer generator and induction phase shifter, etc.).
GB 12350-2009 (GB/T 12350-2009)
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 29.160.30
K 20
GB 12350-2009
Replacing GB 12350-2000
Safety Requirements of Small-power Motors
Convert into recommended standard in accordance with [2017] No.7
Announcement of Standardization Administration
ISSUED ON: SEPTEMBER 30, 2009
IMPLEMENTED ON: AUGUST 1, 2010
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative References ... 7
3 Terms and Definitions ... 9
4 Markings and Instructions ... 11
5 Frame and Enclosure ... 14
6 Mechanical Assembly and Parts ... 15
7 Anti-corrosion ... 16
8 Electrical Connection ... 17
9 Connecting Parts ... 19
10 Internal Wiring ... 20
11 Electrical Insulation Support ... 21
12 Evaluation of Insulation Structure ... 22
13 Brush Holder ... 23
14 Non-metallic Parts ... 23
15 Creepage Distance and Electrical Clearance ... 26
16 Grounding ... 28
17 Temperature-rise Test ... 29
18 Abnormal Test ... 35
19 Durability Test ... 37
20 Insulation Resistance and Electrical Strength ... 38
21 Leakage Current at Operating Temperature ... 40
22 Damp Heat Test ... 41
23 Starting ... 42
24 Components... 43
25 Electromagnetic Compatibility ... 45
26 Other Requirements ... 47
27 Inspection Rules ... 48
Appendix A (normative) Centrifugal Switch ... 50
Appendix B (normative) Running Capacitor of Motors ... 51
Appendix C (normative) Starting Capacitor of Motors ... 53
Appendix D (normative) Thermal Protector of Motors ... 55
Appendix E (normative) Thermal Fuse Link ... 56
Safety Requirements of Small-power Motors
1 Scope
This Standard stipulates the general safety requirements for small-power motors. This Standard is applicable to small-power motors (hereinafter referred to as motors) specified by GB/T 5171 General Technical Requirements for Small Power Motors; other similar motors may also take this as a reference in implementation. This Standard is inapplicable to control motors (such as: servo motor, self-tuning machine, resolver, tachometer generator and induction phase shifter, etc.). 2 Normative References
Through the reference in this Standard, clauses of the following documents become clauses of this Standard. In terms of references with a specific date, all the subsequent modification sheets (excluding the corrected content) or the revised editions are not applicable to this Standard. However, all parties that reach an agreement in accordance with this Standard are encouraged to explore the possibility of adopting the latest version of these documents. In terms of references without a specific date, the latest version is applicable to this Standard.
GB 755-2008 Rotating Electrical Machines - Rating and Performance (IEC 60034- 1:2004, IDT)
GB 1971-2006 Rotating Electrical Machines - Terminal Markings and Direction of Rotation (IEC 60034-8:2002, IDT)
GB/T 2423.3-2006 Environmental Testing for Electric and Electronic Products - Part 2: Testing Method Test Cab: Damp Heat Steady State (IEC 60068-2-78:2001, IDT) GB/T 2423.4-2008 Environmental Testing for Electric and Electronic Products - Part 2: Test Method - Test Db: Damp Heat, Cyclic (12 h + 12 h cycle) (IEC 60068-2-30:2005, IDT)
GB/T 2423.55-2006 Environmental Testing for Electric and Electronic Products - Part 2: Test Method - Test Eh: Hammer Tests (IEC 60068-2-75:1997, IDT)
GB/T 2900.25-2008 Electrotechnical Terminology - Rotating Electrical Machines (IEC 60050-411:1996, IDT)
GB/T 2900.27-2008 Electrotechnical Terminology - Small-power Motor
against electric shock.
3.2.10 Supplementary insulation
Supplementary insulation refers to separate insulation that is additionally applied to the basic insulation in order to provide protection against electric shock in case of failure of the basic insulation.
3.2.11 Double insulation
Double insulation refers to an insulation system consisting of basic insulation and supplementary insulation.
3.2.12 Reinforced insulation
Reinforced insulation refers to under the conditions stipulated in this Standard, provide a single insulation applied to live parts with equivalent anti-shock level to double insulation.
3.2.13 Dielectric performance test
Dielectric performance test of motor includes insulation resistance measurement, winding electrical strength test to ground and interturn insulation test. 3.2.14 Maximum loss point
Maximum loss point refers to the operating point where the maximum loss is generated during the operation of a motor from no load to the rated load point.
4 Markings and Instructions
4.1 Each motor must have a nameplate that explicitly indicates its rating data and other necessary matters at an obvious location.
The nameplate of motor shall include the following content:
a) Name of motor;
b) Model and specification of motor;
c) Rated voltage or range of rated voltage (expressed in: V);
d) Rated frequency (expressed in Hz);
e) Symbols of the nature of power supply, expect those marked with rated frequency;
f) Rated current (expressed in: A);
g) Rated output power (expressed in: W or kW), motor with torque rating shall be marked with rated output torque;
h) Rated speed (expressed in: r/min);
i) Efficiency (for motors with energy efficiency labeling requirements); j) Working system (non-S1 working system);
k) Capacitor?€?s capacitance and rated voltage (if applicable);
l) Wiring diagram (when there is another wiring diagram label on the casing or other locations, it may not be indicated);
m) Degree of insulation;
n) Degree of protection (in case of IP00, it may not be indicated);
o) Name of manufacturer;
p) Date of manufacture or production lot No.
If due to special demands or restriction of the location of nameplate, the various types of motors must increase or decrease the above-mentioned items in this Standard, they shall be specified in the various standards on motors. However, other items shall be described in detail in the instruction manual. The unit of measurement on the nameplate shall comply with the stipulations of relevant standards or regulations. a), b), c), g), h), j), m), o) and p) must be indicated on the nameplate. Through visual inspection, determine whether a motor is qualified.
When the manufacturer and the manufacturing plant are different enterprises, the nameplate shall bear the name of the manufacturer. However, the traceability of the complete production and distribution process must be guaranteed.
4.2 Component of a motor shall be marked with the type and category of the component; there shall also be the manufacturer?€?s name or trademark, or other similar signs, so as to distinguish it from other components and their manufacturers. 4.3 If there is a terminal exclusive to the power neutral line, then, it shall be marked with the letter ?€?N?€?; the grounding terminal shall be marked with the symbol ?€? ?€?. These signs shall not be placed on screws, removable washers or possibly removable parts used as connecting wires.
Grounding cord must be green and yellow two-tone insulated wire. This color code must not be used by other conducting wires.
5 Frame and Enclosure
5.1 Motor shall have sufficient mechanical strength and stiffness, so as to avoid safety accidents, such as fire and electric shock, due to the reduction of electrical clearance or creepage distance, loosening or displacement of displacement of components as a result of mechanical deformation.
5.2 In terms of the enclosure of motor, the minimum allowable thickness has the following stipulations.
5.2.1 In terms of plane parts without reinforcement, the stipulations are as follows: Thickness of cast metal ??? 3.2 mm
Thickness of malleable cast iron ??? 2.4 mm
Thickness of die-cast metal ??? 2.0 mm
If the surface is curved, ribbed, or, other reinforcement methods are adopted, or, its surface shape does have sufficient mechanical strength, then, the minimum allowable thickness may be reduced to:
Thickness of cast metal ??? 2.4 mm
Thickness of malleable cast iron ??? 1.6 mm
Thickness of die-cast metal ??? 1.2 mm
5.2.2 In terms of motor with thin steel plate enclosure, the minimum allowable thickness of its steel plate enclosure is specified as:
Thickness of enclosure without coating ??? 0.70 mm
Thickness of enclosure with cladding layer ??? 0.75 mm
5.2.3 In terms of motor with non-ferrous metal enclosure, the minimum allowable thickness of enclosure is specified as: 1.0 mm. However, in terms of relatively small areas, curved surfaces and surfaces reinforced by other methods, and when it is proved by tests that certain material does have sufficient mechanical strength, its thickness is allowed to be less than the specified limits in 5.2.2 and 5.2.3. 5.2.4 In terms of motor with non-metallic enclosure, the structural design shall have sufficient strength, and shall have the capabilities of heat resistance, flame retardancy and corrosion resistance.
By using the spring impact hammer specified in GB/T 2423.55-2006, apply a blow to the non-metallic enclosure of a motor, so as to determine whether it is qualified. The motor is rigidly supported. At every possible weak point on the enclosure of the motor, use 0.5 J ?? 0.04 J to strike it for three times.
After the test, the motor shall manifest that there is no damage defined in this Standard, especially the degree of compliance with Chapter 15 and Chapter 22 shall not be impaired. When in doubt, the insulation of the motor shall receive the electrical strength test of Chapter 20.
5.2.5 Motor shall have good enclosure protection. Its enclosure protection shall be graded in accordance with the stipulations of GB/T 4942.1-2006; and shall be explicitly specified in the product standard.
Whether it complies with the requirements shall be tested, inspected and determined in accordance with GB/T 4942.1-2006.
6 Mechanical Assembly and Parts
6.1 The assembly of motor shall be firm and reliable, so as to prevent detrimental effects under the vibration of normal operation.
Rotating parts of motor shall be able to endure the overspeed test specified in GB/T 5171-2002, without generating any loosening or detrimental deformation phenomenon. 6.2 If a motor has a junction box for accommodating and connecting the power wires, this junction box shall be solid and durable, and its installation shall be firm. NO detrimental deformation or looseness is allowed.
Whether it complies with the requirements shall be tested, inspected and determined as follows.
For motors with a frame size of above H90, or motors with a diameter of more than 180 mm, when the motor is installed at any pre-determined position, the junction box shall be able to withstand a static load of 110 kg on its horizontal surface without being damaged.
For motors with a frame size of H90 and below, or motors with a diameter of 180 mm and below, when the motor is installed at any pre-determined position, the static load on the horizontal surface of the junction box shall be calculated in accordance with 1.42 kg/cm2 on the horizontal plane. However, the maximum shall be not more than 110 kg. This load may be applied through a metal plane with a diameter of 50 mm without being damaged.
If after the applied load test, the junction box manifests offset or deformation, the electrical clearance and creepage distance between the box body and any terminal still comply with the requirements of Chapter 15, then, the junction box shall be considered as qualified.
fixed, so as to prevent dangerous accidents caused by the looseness of the motor under the vibration of normal operation.
10.4 The welded joint is not allowed to be loose and shall be mechanically fixed, so as to ensure that the conducting wire remains in the proper position of the joint in case of a loose solder joint.
10.5 When insulated conducting wire passes through the metal hole, there must be an insulator or insulating sleeve as specified in 11.1 fixed at the opening. 11 Electrical Insulation Support
11.1 When conducting wire passes through the opening of motor enclosure, there must be a good-quality insulator or other equivalents specified below fixed at the opening; the surface shall be smooth and rounded-off, and there shall be no burrs or sharp edges. In addition, it shall be reliably fixed.
a) Ceramic materials or plastic pressing materials, but wood, non-hot-pressing shellac paint or insulators with asphalt components cannot be independently used;
b) Vulcanized cardboard or fiber-formed insulator with moisture-proof treatment, but its thickness is not less than 1.2 mm;
c) Adopt glass paint tube as an insulator, with a thickness of not less than 0.5 mm;
d) After insulation treatment, the insulation thickness of the metal guard ring is not less than 0.8 mm, but the insulation is required to fill the gap between the guard ring and the metal; the insulation shall not easily fall off;
e) If the enclosure of motor is wood, porcelain, phenolic plastic or other non- conductive materials, then, no insulator is required.
11.2 Insulating material or insulating sleeve used to support live parts shall be able to continuously operate at the temperature specified in Table 5.
12.3.6 The insulation resistance of the samples shall be measured through a 500 V megohmmeter at room temperature, and the insulation resistance shall be not lower than 0.5 M???.
12.3.7 All samples shall receive another dielectric strength test in accordance with 12.3.2 and pass the test; there shall be no breakdown.
13 Brush Holder
In terms of motors with commutator or collecting ring, the brush holder assembly shall have such a structure that when the brush is worn and can no longer work, the brush, spring and other parts shall maintain the following degree:
a) Avoid charging nearby uncharged metal parts;
b) Avoid easy access to live parts.
14 Non-metallic Parts
14.1 In terms of the external parts (such as: non-metallic junction box and cooling fan, etc.) of a motor made of insulating materials, and insulating materials used to install current-carrying parts, if they are thermally deformed and will endanger the safety of the motor, then, there shall be sufficient heat resistance.
Whether it complies with the requirements shall be tested, inspected and determined as follows (this test is not required for ceramic materials).
14.1.1 In terms of the external parts (such as: non-metallic junction box and cooling fan, etc.) of the motor, conduct ball pressure test in accordance with the device demonstrated in Figure 1.
Horizontally place the sample. Use a steel ball with a diameter of 5 mm to press to the plane with a force of 20 N, then, put it into the oven. The temperature in the oven is (75 ?? 2) ??C. After 1 h, make the steel ball leave the sample. Then, immerse the sample in water; within 10 s, cool it to near room temperature. At this moment, the diameter of the steel ball indentation on the sample shall not be more than 2 mm.
The thickness of the sample cannot be less than 2.5 mm. If the thickness of the sample is less than 2.5 mm, then, it is allowed to stack multiple samples to this thickness. within a distance of 3 mm of these connectors shall receive glow wire test in accordance with GB/T 5169.11-2006.
a) In terms of non-metallic parts of motor, the glow wire test shall be conducted at the temperature of 550 ??C.
b) In terms of motors that work in care, the temperature of the glow wire test: ---for connectors whose current-carrying capacity exceeds 0.5 A during
normal operation: 750 ??C;
---for other connectors: 650 ??C.
This test is inapplicable to:
---motors in hand-held appliances;
---motors that must be kept energized by hand or foot.
c) In terms of motors that work unattended, the temperature of the glow wire test: ---for connectors whose current-carrying capacity exceeds 0.2 A during
normal operation: 750 ??C;
---for other connectors: 650 ??C.
14.2.3 When conducting fire hazard test on non-metallic parts of a motor, the test methods and the evaluation of test results shall comply with the priority provisions in the Standard and the supplementary provisions in 14.2.1 ~ 14.2.2. In addition, they shall also comply with the following supplementary stipulations.
a) Test application point and sample fixed position
Determine in accordance with the most unfavorable situation of the actual installation and operation of the sample in the motor.
b) Evaluation of bottom layer under the impact of combustion expansion
Use silk paper to cover a white pine wood board with a thickness of around 10 mm; place it under (200 ?? 5) mm from the place where the test sample is applied with flame. However, for the actual installation position in the motor, there is no other non-metallic part under the insulating part, and when the part is sealed in the motor, the actual bottom material may be used as the bottom layer, instead of what is stipulated in this provision; the distance from the test sample is consistent with the actual situation.
14.3 Insulation parts used to install live parts, and insulation parts between live parts and adjacent uncharged metal parts shall be made of anti-tracking materials, unless be not less than the specified value of basic insulation in Table 7.
The creepage distance of reinforced insulation of a motor shall be not less than twice the specified value of basic insulation in Table 7.
Through measurement, determine whether it is qualified.
16 Grounding
16.1 Except for motors with additional insulation, motors with a rated voltage of 42 V and below, or motors installed in complete insulation devices with additional insulation and motors powered by independent power supplies, other motors shall have a grounding device.
The design of the grounding device shall ensure that there is a good electrical connection with the grounding conducting wire without damaging the wires and terminals. Accessible metal parts that may be charged in case of insulation failure in the motor shall have a permanent, reliable and good electrical connection to the grounding device.
Grounding screw must not be used for other purposes.
16.2 If the motor adopts a terminal to connect the grounding conducting wire, then, this terminal shall comply with the requirements for terminal in 8.2. The clamping device of the grounding terminal must be reliably locked, so as to prevent accidental looseness, and ensure that it cannot be loosened without tools. These anti-loosening measures may use similar structures, such as: chrysanthemum gaskets and spring washers, etc. 16.3 The grounding terminal shall be placed near the terminal. When there is a junction box, then, it shall be placed in the junction box. However, it is required that it will not be removed during use.
Whether it complies with the requirements in 16.1 ~ 16.3 shall be inspected; and tested and determined in accordance with 8.2.
16.4 The grounding conductor and the grounding terminal, and its clamping device must be good electrical conductors with corrosion resistance. If it is ferrous metal, then, it shall be plated, or, other equivalent measures shall be adopted to prevent corrosion. 16.5 The grounding device must have grounding marking specified in 4.3. 16.6 T...

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