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DZ/T 0200-2002 English PDF (DZT0200-2002)

DZ/T 0200-2002 English PDF (DZT0200-2002)

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DZ/T 0200-2002: Specification for iron, manganese and chromium mineral exploration

This standard specifies the specifications of geological exploration for iron, manganese, chrome minerals, including scope, normative references, objectives and tasks of exploration, degree of investigation and study, requirements for exploration control, exploration work and quality requirements, feasibility evaluation, classifications of mineral resources/reserves, type conditions, requirements for mineral resources/reserve estimates, etc.
DZ/T 0200-2002
GEOLOGICAL MINERAL INDUSTRY STANDARD
OF THE PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 73.020; 73.060.01
D 12
Specifications for iron, manganese and
chromium mineral exploration
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 17, 2002
IMPLEMENTED ON: MARCH 01, 2003
Issued by: Ministry of Land and Resources of PRC
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative references ... 5
3 Purpose and task of exploration ... 5
3.1 Pre-review ... 5
3.2 General review ... 6
3.3 Detailed review ... 6
3.4 Exploration ... 6
4 Degree of exploration study ... 6
4.1 Degree of geological study ... 6
4.2 Study of ore quality ... 9
4.3 Ore processing (melting) and processing technical conditions ... 10 4.4 Study on technical conditions of deposit mining ... 10
4.5 Comprehensive evaluation of comprehensive exploration ... 13
5 Control level of exploration ... 14
5.1 Principles for determining the type of deposit exploration ... 14
5.2 Principles for determining the spacing of exploration projects ... 15 5.3 Control level of exploration ... 15
6 Exploration work and quality requirements ... 16
6.1 Terrain and engineering survey ... 16
6.2 Geological mapping ... 16
6.3 Geophysical work ... 16
6.4 Prospecting works ... 17
6.5 Collection, processing, analysis of chemical samples ... 18
6.6 Collection, analysis, test of ore processing sample ... 21
6.7 Collection and test of test sample of physical-technical performance of rock ore ... 22 6.8 Original geological catalogue, comprehensive data compilation, report preparation, etc. 22 7 Feasibility evaluation ... 24
7.1 Rough study ... 24
7.2 Pre-feasibility study ... 24
7.3 Feasibility study ... 25
8 Classification and type conditions of mineral resources/reserve ... 25 8.1 Basis for classification of mineral resources/reserves ... 25
8.2 Types of mineral resources/reserves (Appendix A) ... 26
9 Estimate of mineral resources/reserves ... 29
9.1 Industry index of deposit ... 29
9.2 General principles for estimate of mineral resources/reserves ... 30 9.3 Results of estimation of mineral resources/reserves classification ... 31 Appendix A (Normative) Classifications of solid mineral resources/reserves . 32 Appendix B (Informative) Iron, manganese, chromium minerals and ore types ... 33
B.1 Iron minerals and iron ore types ... 33
B.2 Manganese minerals and manganese ore types ... 35
B.3 Chromium minerals and chrome ore types ... 39
Appendix C (Informative) Main types of iron, manganese, chrome deposits . 41 C.1 Main types of iron deposits ... 41
C.2 Main types of manganese deposits ... 46
C.3 Main types of chrome deposit ... 50
C.4 Classification of scales of iron, manganese, chrome deposits ... 52 Appendix D (Informative) Requirements for control level of exploration ... 53 D.1 Type of exploration ... 53
D.2 Engineering spacing of exploration ... 66
D.3 Control level of exploration ... 67
D.4 Requirements for mineral resources/reserves in mine construction ... 68 Appendix E (Informative) Estimate of mineral resources/reserve ... 69
E.1 Industry index of deposit ... 69
E.2 Estimate method of mineral resources/reserves ... 75
E.3 Estimate results, by types, of mineral resources/reserves of xxx iron (manganese or chromium) deposit ... 77
Appendix F (Informative) Glossary ... 80
F.1 Total iron (TFe) ... 80
F.2 Magnetic iron (mFe) ... 80
F.3 Iron sulfide (sfFe) ... 80
F.4 Iron carbonate (cFe) ... 80
F.5 Iron silicate (siFe) ... 81
F.6 Red (brown) iron (oFe) ... 81
F.7 Slag-making component ... 81
F.8 Martite ... 81
F.9 Discharge manganese ore ... 82
Specifications for iron, manganese and
chromium mineral exploration
1 Scope
This standard specifies the specifications of geological exploration for iron, manganese, chrome minerals, including scope, normative references,
objectives and tasks of exploration, degree of investigation and study, requirements for exploration control, exploration work and quality requirements, feasibility evaluation, classifications of mineral resources/reserves, type conditions, requirements for mineral resources/reserve estimates, etc.
This standard is applicable to geological exploration of iron, manganese and chrome ore as well as the mineral resource/reserve estimate. It is also applicable to the inspection and evaluation of exploration reports of iron, manganese, chrome mineral. It may also be used as the basis for evaluating and estimating mineral resources/reserves in such activities as mining rights transfer, financing, fund-raising, stock listing for mineral exploration and development.
2 Normative references
The provisions in following documents become the provisions of this standard through reference in this standard. For the dated references, the subsequent amendments (excluding corrections) or revisions do not apply to this standard; however, parties who reach an agreement based on this standard are
encouraged to study if the latest versions of these documents are applicable. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document applies. GB/T 13908-2002 General requirements for solid mineral exploration
3 Purpose and task of exploration
3.1 Pre-review
Through comprehensive study on geology, geophysical exploration,
geochemical exploration, remote-sensing in the region, preliminary field observations, a very small number of engineering verification results,
comparison with deposits of known similar geological features, propose the select prospecting areas, to carry out pre-review work. Make evaluation for the geophysical anomalies, geochemical anomalies, remote-sensing anomalies, mineralization points, ore deposits which have ore-forming conditions in the pre-review region, to initially understand their characteristics and distribution ranges, to provide a basis for further general check.
4.1.2 General review stage
Collect such data as geological, mineral, geophysical, geochemical, remote- sensing geology, to understand regional geological features and prospects for mineralization. Roughly identify the strata, lithology, thickness, occurrence, distribution in the reviewed region. Roughly identify the distribution, scale, occurrence of larger folds, faults, fracture zones. Roughly identify the type, quantity, form, distribution of intrusive rocks or eruptive rocks. Evaluate all kinds of geophysical anomalies, geochemical anomalies, remote-sensing anomalies, ore deposits or mineralization points, to roughly identify their output characteristics and distribution range. For mineral deposits (body) with further working value in the region, it shall roughly identify the distribution, quantity, location of occurrence, thickness, scale, occurrence, ore quality. It shall roughly understand the development of the oxidation zone of the deposit (body), to provide basis for further detailed review work.
4.1.3 Detailed review stage
4.1.3.1 Regional geology: Further study such data as the stratum, structure, magmatic rocks, metamorphic rocks, minerals related to mineralization in the region. Based on such data as geophysical, geochemical, remote-sensing
geology, clarify the location, regional geological features, mineralization conditions, mineralization prospects of iron, manganese, chromium minerals in regional structures as well as the major minerals in the region.
4.1.3.2 Mining region (bed) geology: Roughly identify the stratigraphic age, sequence, lithology, thickness, occurrence, distribution. For sedimentary deposits and metamorphic deposits, it shall also study the sedimentary
environment of ore-bearing strata (rock series), lithofacies, rock combination, metamorphism, the distribution and change rule of ore-forming elements; determine the ore-bearing stratum as well as the spatial distribution of ore bodies in the stratum. Study the relationship between the structure of the mining area and the spatial distribution of ore bodies. Roughly identify the nature, scale, occurrence, mutual relationship, distribution law of the folds, faults, fracture zones which control the ore body. For the large faults which have large displacement and divide the ore body, it shall roughly understand its spatial position, occurrence, displacement. For the small faults, it shall, based on the surface engineering data, preliminarily describe their scope and distribution. Study and basically identify the types, forms, scales, occurrences of intrusive rocks and eruptive rocks. Understand the intrusion (eruption) era, period, the degree of destructive impact of the structure or the veins on the ore body after the mineralization. For the main ore body of the preliminary mining section, it shall control its form, spatial location, occurrence in detail. For the small ore bodies with industrial value on the main ore body of the preliminary mining area, it shall also be controlled at the same time. If necessary, it may densify the project to improve the degree of exploration and study. For open pit mining, in order to determine the boundary of the open pit, it shall systematically control the boundary around the main ore body and the orebody at the bottom of the open pit; for the underground mining bed, it shall control the both ends, upper and lower boundaries, extension of the main orebody, to determine the location of the development project.
4.2 Study of ore quality
4.2.1 Pre-review stage
Preliminarily understand the mineral composition, chemical composition, main elements of the ore.
4.2.2 General review phase
Roughly identify the ore minerals, gangue minerals, ore grades, structural constructions, natural types of ore. Roughly understand the content and distribution of useful, beneficial, harmful components, to provide basis for determining whether it is industrially applicable.
4.2.3 Detailed review stage
Basically identify the ore minerals, types and contents of gangue mineral, ore structural characteristics. Basically identify the type, content, occurrence state, law of distribution of the useful, beneficial, harmful components. Preliminarily divide the natural types and industrial types of ores; study the law of distribution. Provide a basis for the overall planning of the mining area, the project proposal for the mine construction, the pre-feasibility study.
4.2.4 Exploration stage
Identify the types and contents of ore minerals and gangue minerals in detail. Study the interrelationship and distribution of ore minerals. Identify the content, occurrence state, distribution of useful, beneficial, harmful components in detail. Study the structure and distribution characteristics of ore in detail. Identify the grain size and embedding characteristics of iron, manganese, chromium
minerals and major gangue minerals. According to such factors as the mineral composition, content, structure and oxidation degree of the ore, determine the natural types in detail. Determine the boundary of oxidation zone, the mixed zone, the original ore. On the basis of dividing the natural type of ore, according pre-review, it shall collect the regional hydrogeology, engineering geology, environmental geological data, to provide a basis for further work.
4.4.2 General review stage
On the basis of collecting regional hydrogeology, engineering geology and environmental geological data of the study area, understand the distribution of surface water bodies in the mining area, understand the stability of the surrounding rock and ore of the ore body (stratum) as well as the environmental geological conditions, to provide a basis for further work.
4.4.3 Detailed review stage
4.4.3.1 Hydrogeological study: Based on the understanding of regional
hydrogeological conditions and the collection of local hydrological and meteorological data, basically identify the lithology, thickness, distribution, occurrence, burial conditions of the aquifer and water-confining layer, the water- richness of aquifer, the hydraulic connection of each aquifers, the stability of the aquifer and degree of water isolation. Basically identify the surface water distribution in the mining area as well as its hydraulic connection with the main aquifer. Study the groundwater level (water pressure), water quality, water temperature, water quantity, dynamic change and recharge, runoff, discharge conditions; preliminarily determine the mine pit?€?s water filling factors; predict the water inflow of the mine pit. Preliminarily divide the hydrogeological types of deposit; determine the complexity of hydrogeological conditions. Propose the direction of water resources for industrial and domestic use of mine.
4.4.3.2 Engineering geological study: Determine the mechanical properties of the main rock ore in the mining area; study its stability. Basically identify the distribution of fault fracture zone, joints, fissures, weathering belt, mudding belt, sand-flowing layer, weak interlayer in the mining area; evaluate the influence on the stability of the ore body and its surrounding rock strata. Propose the evaluation opinions on the stability of the side slope of open pit. Investigate the distribution, filling and water accumulation of the old cavity and the goaf. Preliminarily determine the engineering geological type of the deposit and determine the complexity of engineering geological conditions.
4.4.3.3 Environmental geological study: Basically identify the composition and content of elements, radioactive and other harmful gases which are harmful to the human body in rocks, ores and groundwater (including hot water). Propose the preliminary evaluation opinions on whether there is any harm to the human body. Collect relevant data on natural geological disasters such as earthquakes, debris flows, landslides, karst, etc.; analyze their impact on mine production. Predict the possible impact of mining on the environment and ecology of the area.
earthquake and new tectonic activity; clarify the seismic geological conditions of the mining area and the stability of the mining area. Evaluate the geological environment quality before the mining of the deposit. Predict the damage and impact on the environment and ecology of the mining area during the mining; propose preventative recommendations.
4.5 Comprehensive evaluation of comprehensive exploration
4.5.1 Pre-review stage
Initially understand whether there are other beneficial minerals.
4.5.2 General review stage
For symbiotic and associated minerals with industrial utilization value, it shall roughly identify their content and occurrence characteristics, study the possibility of comprehensive utilization.
4.5.3 Detailed review stage
For the symbiotic and associated minerals with industrial utilization value, it shall roughly identify the material composition, content, occurrence state, distribution state; determine the possibility of industrial utilization. 4.5.4 Exploration stage
For symbiotic and associated minerals which have industrial utilization value within the exploration area, it shall carry out comprehensive exploration and comprehensive evaluation. Identify the material composition, content,
occurrence state, distribution law; determine and evaluate the distribution rate of symbiotic and associated useful components in different minerals. For the associated beneficial components in the ore that are beneficial to improve the quality of the processed products, but cannot be recycled at the time of processing, they shall also be evaluated; however, the reserves are not separately estimated. For symbiotic minerals in the ore body and in the adjacent surrounding rock, it shall make full use of the exploration project to carry out evaluation. If necessary, it shall properly densify the project to improve its control and study level. For the degree of exploration and study on symbiotic minerals, it shall follow the requirements of the geological exploration specification of corresponding ore.
Different types of iron, manganese, chrome deposits may contain different symbiotic (associated) components, some of which, if exceeding a certain limit, will pose a hazard to the smelting products. However, when these components may be separated through processing means, and become useful components through comprehensive recycling use, it shall pay attention to comprehensive in time.
5.2 Principles for determining the spacing of exploration
projects
5.2.1 According to the exploration type and the exploration stage, select the corresponding spacing of exploration engineering.
5.2.2 The engineering spacing at the detailed review stage is the basic engineering spacing for the exploration of the deposit. The engineering spacing during the exploration stage is in principle densified on the basis of the spacing of basic engineering. In the pre-review and general review stages, due to the scarcity of engineering work, it has no specific requirement for the engineering spacing, but it shall make full consideration to the connection with subsequent projects.
5.2.3 The engineering spacing of the type-III exploration in the exploration stage is the densest spacing of the exploration project of deposit. For some deposits with small scales and large variations in form and composition, if it is still difficult to obtain ideal exploration results according to the engineering spacing, it shall be converted into the ?€?mining whilst exploration?€? method, to make further investigation on the geological characteristics of the occurrence of deposit in the mining process.
5.2.4 When the change of the ore body in the direction of the strike is greater than that in the direction of tendency, the project may be arranged into a rectangular mesh whose short side is in the direction of the ore body.
5.2.5 Mark the surface engineering spacing of the ore body, which is generally one-half of the engineering spacing of the deep part.
5.2.6 Once the exploration type has been revised, the engineering spacing of the exploration shall also be adjusted accordingly.
5.3 Control level of exploration
First of all, it shall control the distribution range and mutual relationship of the ore bodies in the exploration area. The level of specific control shall, according to multiple factors such as the exploration stage, the output characteristics of the deposit and the possible construction scale (including the service life of the mine), the degree of market demand, be agreed with the investors (Appendix D.3).
6.3.2 Carry out the magnetic, gravity, electric measurement at different scales. To identify such information as boundary, shape, occurrence of the rock and ore body, study the structural belt, find hidden ore body, it shall make full use of borehole geophysical exploration method, retrieve the boundary of the ore body, understand the shape and occurrence of ore body.
6.3.3 When surveying magnetic iron ore, it shall use the surface magnetic survey data, to infer and delineate the distribution range, shape, occurrence, depth, thickness change of the ore body as well as the geological structure. Use the borehole three-component magnetic survey, to determine the location through which the borehole penetrates the ore body (layer), to solve the problem of ore body extension and relative connection, to detect the blind ore body aside the borehole and at the bottom of the borehole. Drilling holes in the control section shall ensure that the magnetic curve anomalies in the borehole can pass through the ore body (layer) to enter the normal field, to facilitate...

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