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GB/T 13441.1-2007 English PDF (GBT13441.1-2007)

GB/T 13441.1-2007 English PDF (GBT13441.1-2007)

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GB/T 13441.1-2007: Mechanical vibration and shock -- Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration -- Part 1: General requirements

GB/T 13441.1-2007
ICS 13.160
Z 32
GB/T 13441.1-2007 / ISO 2631-1:1997
Replacing GB/T 13441-1992, GB/T 13442-1992
Mechanical Vibration and Shock – Evaluation of Human
Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration – Part 1: General
(ISO 2631-1:1997, IDT)
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
Introduction ... 6
1 Scope ... 8
2 Normative References ... 8
3 Terms and Definitions ... 9
4 Symbols and Subscripts ... 9
5 Vibration Measurement ... 11
5.1 General ... 11
5.2 Direction of measurement ... 11
5.3 Location of measurement ... 12
5.4 General requirements for signal conditioning ... 12
5.5 Duration of measurement ... 13
5.6 Reporting of vibration conditions ... 13
6 Vibration Evaluation ... 14
6.1 Basic evaluation method using weighted root-mean-square acceleration ... 14 6.2 Applicability of the basic evaluation method ... 14
6.3 Additional evaluation of vibration when the basic evaluation method is not sufficient ... 17
6.4 Frequency weighting ... 19
6.5 Combining vibrations in more than one direction ... 22
6.6 Guide to the use of the vibration evaluation methods ... 22
7 Health ... 23
7.1 Application ... 23
7.2 Evaluation of the vibration ... 23
7.3 Guidance on the effects of vibration on health ... 24
8 Comfort and Perception ... 24
8.1 Application ... 24
8.2 Comfort ... 24
8.3 Perception ... 27
8.4 Guidance on the effects of vibration on perception and comfort ... 27 9 Motion Sickness ... 27
9.1 Application ... 27
9.2 Evaluation of the vibration ... 28
9.3 Guidance on the effects of vibration on the incidence of motion sickness ... 29 Annex A (Normative) Mathematical Definition of the Frequency Weightings ... 30 Annex B (Informative) Guide to the Effects of Vibration on Health ... 33 Annex C (Informative) Guide to the Effects of Vibration on Comfort and Perception ... 36
Annex D (Informative) Guide to the Effects of Vibration on the Incidence of Motion Sickness... 40
Bibliography ... 42
GB/T 13441 Mechanical Vibration and Shock – Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration is divided into the following four parts:
--- Part 1: General Vibration;
--- Part 2: Vibration in Buildings (1Hz~80Hz);
--- Part 4: Guidelines for the Evaluation of the Effects of Vibration and Rotational Motion on Passenger and Crew Comfort in Fixed-Guideway Transport Systems;
--- Part 5: Method for Evaluation of Vibration Containing Multiple Shocks. This Part is Part 1 of GB/T 13441.
This Part equivalently adopted ISO 2631-1:1997 (E) Mechanical Vibration and Shock – Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration – Part 1: General Requirements (English Version).
For ease of use, this Part made the following editorial modifications:
--- Use “this Part” to replace “this Part of ISO 2631”;
--- Delete the Foreword of the international standard;
--- Use the decimal point “.” to replace the comma “,” that is used as the decimal point; --- Delete the Annex E; and combine the corresponding contents int the Bibliography; --- For the other international standards that are quoted by ISO 2631-1:1997 (E), some of which are equivalently adopted by Chinese standard, then they shall be replaced by the Chinese standard; while others are directly quoted the international standard.
This Part jointly revised GB/T 13441-1992 Specification for Measurement of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration Environment, and GB/T 13442-1992 Reduced Comfort Boundary and Evaluation Criteria for Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration.
Compared with GB/T 13441-1992 and GB/T 13442-1992, the major changes of this Part are as follows:
--- The degree of consistency between this Part and ISO 2631-1: 1997(E) is equivalent, while the previous version is not equivalent;
--- This Part is changed to Part 1 of the GB/T 13441 series of standards; and the parts not included in GB/T 13441-1992 and GB/T 13442-1992 are supplemented according to ISO 2631-1: 1997 (E);
--- The frequency range extends below 1Hz and is evaluated using the acceleration frequency weighting method based on the root mean square value;
--- Add Annex A: Mathematical definition of frequency weighting;
---Adjust terms and definitions;
--- Cancel the concepts of vibration magnitude (vibration level), equivalent continuous root mean square value, equivalent continuous vibration level and etc. in GB/T 13441-1992; --- Cancel the measurement report in GB/T 13441-1992;
--- This Part does not emphasize the vibration exposure limit, nor the concept of exposure time. Cancel the contents related to exposure time in the tables and figures of GB/T 13442-1992; but add the guidance on the vibration impact assessment in Annexes B, C and D;
--- This Part not only specifies relevant measurement and evaluation methods for the impact of vibration on the sitting and standing human body, but also stipulates relevant measurement and evaluation methods for the impact of vibration on the lying human body; Annex C provides the guidance of the impact of vibration on comfort and perception.
This Part’s Annex A is normative; while Annexes B, C and D are informative. This Part was proposed by National Technical Committee on Mechanical Vibration and Shock of Standardization Administration of China (SAC/TC 53).
Drafting organizations of this Part: Beijing Institute of Technology; Beijing Institute of Space Medico-Engineering; China Academy of Railway Sciences; Jilin Institute of Safety Science and Technology; Beijing Municipal Institute of Labor Protection; and Zhengzhou Mechanical Engineering Research Institute.
Chief drafting staffs of this Part: Gao Li, Chen Weijie, Wu Shaobin, Chen Xuemei, Zhao Yanan, Liu Hongtao, Ma Jun, Xiao Jianmin, Shao Bin, and Han Guoming.
The historical editions replaced by this Standard are as follows:
--- GB/T 13441-1992;
--- GB/T 13442-1992.
Mechanical Vibration and Shock – Evaluation of Human
Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration – Part 1: General
1 Scope
This Part defines methods for the measurement of periodic, random and transient whole-body vibration. It indicates the principal factors that combine to determine the degree to which a vibration exposure will be acceptable. Informative annexes (Annexes B ~ D) indicate current opinion and provide guidance on the possible effects of vibration on health, comfort and perception and motion sickness. The frequency range considered is
- 0.5 Hz to 80 Hz for health, comfort and perception, and
- 0.l Hz to 0.5 Hz for motion sickness.
Although the potential effects on human performance are not covered, most of the guidance on whole-body vibration measurement also applies to this area. This part of IS0 2631 also defines the principles of preferred methods of mounting transducers for determining human exposure. It does not apply to the evaluation of extreme magnitude single shock such as occur in vehicle accidents.
This Part is applicable to motions transmitted to the human body as a whole through the supporting surfaces: the feet of a standing person, the buttocks, back and feet of a seated person or the supporting area of a recumbent person. This type of vibration is found in vehicles, in machinery, in buildings and in the vicinity of working machinery.
2 Normative References
The provisions in following documents become the provisions of this Part through reference in this Part of GB/T 13441. For dated references, the subsequent amendments (excluding corrigendum) or revisions do not apply to this Standard, however, parties who reach an agreement based on this Standard are encouraged to study if the latest versions of these documents are applicable. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document applies.
GB/T 15619-2005 Mechanical vibration and shock - Human exposure – Vocabulary (ISO 5805:1997, IDT)
vibration over time and over frequency bands. The frequency response of the vibration transducer and associated signal conditioning prior to signal processing shall be appropriate to the range of frequencies specified in the relevant clauses of this Part. The dynamic range of the signal-conditioning equipment shall be adequate for the highest and lowest signals. Signals to be recorded for later analysis may first be passed through a low-pass filter having a cutoff (- 3 dB) frequency of approximately 1.5 times the highest frequency of interest in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio and the phase characteristic shall be linear within the range of frequencies specified in the relevant clauses of this Part. 5.5 Duration of measurement
The duration of measurement shall be sufficient to ensure reasonable statistical precision and to ensure that the vibration is typical of the exposures which are being assessed. The duration of measurement shall be reported.
Where complete exposure consists of various periods of different characteristics, separate analysis of the various periods may be required.
NOTE: For stationary random signals, the measurement accuracy depends on the filter bandwidth and measurement duration. For example, to obtain a measurement error of less than 3 dB at a confidence level of 90 % requires a minimum measurement duration of 108 s for a lower limiting frequency (LLF) of 1 Hz and 227 s for a LLF of 0.5 Hz, when the analysis is done with a one-third octave bandwidth. The measurement period is normally much longer, such that it is representative of the vibration exposure. 5.6 Reporting of vibration conditions
This part of IS0 2631 has been formulated to simplify and standardize the reporting, comparison and assessment of vibration conditions. Proper use of this standard should result in clear documentation of results. This will involve a reference to the appropriate clauses and annexes of this Part and to one or more of the frequency weightings.
Where alternative methods are described in this Part it is important that the methods used are clearly reported.
Users of this Part are encouraged to report both the magnitude and duration of any vibration exposure being assessed. If additional evaluation methods are applied according to 6.3 (e.g., when the crest factor is greater than 9) both the basic value and the additional value shall be reported. If the crest factor is determined, the time period of its measurement should be reported. The specification of the severity of complex vibration conditions by one, or a few, values is convenient and often essential. However, it is desirable that more detailed information on vibration conditions become available. Reports should include information on the frequency content (i.e., vibration spectra), vibration axes, how conditions change over time, and any other factors which may influence the effect.

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